地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (3): 474-486.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201803007

• 地表过程与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江中游新石器时代遗址规模的分布特征

陈瑞,李凤全(),王天阳,朱丽东,叶玮,周国成   

  1. 浙江师范大学地理与环境科学学院,金华 321004
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-20 出版日期:2018-03-20 发布日期:2018-03-23
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41572345, 41371206);浙江省自然科学基金项目(LY16D010001);国家大学生创新训练计划项目(201510345025)

The size distribution of Neolithic sites in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River

CHEN Rui,LI Fengquan(),WANG Tianyang,ZHU Lidong,YE Wei,ZHOU Guocheng   

  1. College of Geography and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, Zhejiang, China
  • Received:2017-04-20 Online:2018-03-20 Published:2018-03-23
  • Supported by:
    [Foundation: National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41572345, No.41371206; Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang, No.LY16D010001;National Innovation Training Program for College Students, No.201510345025]

摘要:

运用ArcGIS软件建立了长江中游地区9.0~4.0 ka BP文化遗址的空间数据库,采用叠加分析和统计学方法,对文化遗址的规模、海拔分布、坡度、距河流远近等特征进行了系统分析。结果表明:① 由新石器时代早期到晚期,遗址的数量、规模和分布范围等均呈现增长或扩大趋势,叠置型遗址个数增加;② 遗址一般具有低海拔、平缓地形和距河流较近的选址倾向,晚期的文化遗址大体保持该倾向,但对海拔、坡度及距河流远近等的选择开始出现分化。③ 新石器时代晚期不同规模的文化遗址在选址上存在一定分异。小型遗址多分布在坡度为6°~15°的缓坡地,中型及以上规模的遗址更倾向于坡度为2°~6°平缓地;中小型至大型遗址的海拔分布均以30~50 m为主,特大型遗址的海拔分布以50~100 m为主;特大型遗址在距河流1000 m以内的分布比例高于其他规模遗址;④ 新石器文化在早中期受气候、水源、地形等自然环境因素影响较大,晚期文化的适应能力有所增强。

关键词: 长江中游, 新石器时代, 遗址规模, 分布特征

Abstract:

Cultural sites are relics of human activity and they are also the product of the interactions between human and nature. The size of cultural sites could reflect the population size and grade of the ancient settlements. The study of cultural sites could help us to deepen the understanding of the relationships between human and nature. This paper established the spatial database of the Neolithic cultural sites in the middle reaches of Yangtze River from 9000 a BP to 4000 a BP. by using ArcGIS software. Overlay analysis and statistical method were employed to examine the spatial relationships between the size of archaeological sites and elevation, slope, the distance to the river in different periods. The results showed that, from the early Neolithic period to the late Neolithic period, the number of sites, the size of sites and the spatial distribution range of the sites showed an increasing or expanding trend, and the proportion of overlapping sites increased; Sites with different sizes generally had low altitude, gentle terrain and near river selection tendency. For sites of the late Neolithic Age, while there existed the above-mentioned selection tendency, the selection of altitude, slope and the distance to river tended to show the characteristics of diversification. There were some differences in location selection of Neolithic cultural sites with different sizes in the late Neolithic period. Small sites were mostly located on the gentle slope of 6-15 degrees. The large or medium-sized sites tended to be distributed on the flat land with a slope of 2-6 degrees; From small to large sites, Neolithic sites was dominated by an elevation of 30-50 m. The elevation of super sites was mainly in a range from 50 m to 100 m. The super sites were located in the area less than 1 km far from the river; The Neolithic culture was greatly influenced by the natural factors such as climate, water resources and topography in the early and middle Neolithic Age, and the adaptation ability of culture in the late Neolithic period was gradually enhanced.

Key words: middle reaches of Yangtze River, Neolithic culture, the size of sites, distribution