地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (3): 429-441.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201803004

• 地表过程与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

国家重点生态功能区生态状况变化与保护成效评估——以海南岛中部山区国家重点生态功能区为例

侯鹏1,翟俊1(),曹巍2,杨旻1,蔡明勇1,李静1   

  1. 1. 环境保护部卫星环境应用中心,北京 100094
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2017-05-22 出版日期:2018-03-20 发布日期:2018-03-23
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0506506, 2016YFC0500206); 国家自然科学基金项目(41501484)

Evaluation on ecosystem changes and protection of the national key ecological function zones in mountainous areas of central Hainan Island

HOU Peng1,ZHAI Jun1(),CAO Wei2,YANG Min1,CAI Mingyong1,LI Jing1   

  1. 1. Satellite Environment Center, MEP, Beijing 100094, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2017-05-22 Online:2018-03-20 Published:2018-03-23
  • Supported by:
    [Foundation: National Key R&D Program of China, No.2017YFC0506506, No.2016YFC0500206; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41501484]

摘要:

自2000年提出生态功能保护区的概念以来,历时17年不断探索和发展完善,中国已经形成了一批国家重点生态功能区和相关配套政策,成为生态保护红线划定的重要依据和主体功能区战略实施的主要组成,对保障国家生态安全和优化国土空间格局具有十分重要的意义。海南岛中部山区在2001年成为国家生态功能保护区试点,2010年被确定为国家重点生态功能区,是较早实施生态功能保护的重点管控区域之一。本文以海南岛中部山区热带雨林重点生态功能区为研究区域,综合利用多源卫星遥感数据和地面观测统计数据,集成地统计学和生态评估模型模拟方法,以生态系统格局、植被长势、服务功能为主要评估内容,通过时空尺度拓展和多维时空对比分析,探讨了该重点生态功能区生态系统变化和保护成效。结果发现:① 2013年功能区森林面积占比为84.5%,显著高于海南岛平均水平。1990-2013年功能区内建设用地逐渐增加。2010年功能区实施后,人类活动强度仍然呈现持续增加态势,面积比例从0.5%增加到0.8%,主要表现为城镇建设和耕地开垦。② 功能区水源涵养服务功能明显优于功能区外部,1990-2013年水源涵养服务功能总体上略有增加,但是不同时间段的波动变化明显,特别是1990-2000年和2000-2013年两个时间段内均表现为先减少后增加的变化特征。功能区单位面积的水源涵养量为51.78万m2/km2,明显高于功能区外部。③ 功能区土壤保持服务功能明显要优于功能区外部,1990-2013年表现出剧烈波动、稳定性较差。功能区单位面积的土壤保持量为1.95万t/km2,明显高于功能区外部。④ 功能区人类扰动指数明显小于功能区外部,生物多样性威胁程度明显偏小,有利于生物多样性的保护。功能区平均人类扰动指数为0.3664,比功能区外部低0.1152。1990-2013年功能区外部人类扰动指数变化幅度为0.0152,约为功能区内部变化幅度的5.31倍。特别是2010-2013年,功能区内部人类扰动指数增加幅度要明显小于功能区外部。

关键词: 生态功能区, 生态系统, 服务功能, 保护成效

Abstract:

Ecosystem services have become one of the major aspects of ecosystem management and evaluation. As a key area of ecosystem services, evaluation of ecosystem changes and implementation effect is important for national key ecological function zones. Such evaluation can help to maintain national ecological security, drive the implementation of the main function zone strategy and advance the construction of an ecological civilization. This article explores the ecological zone of a tropical rainforest region in the central mountain area of Hainan Island, China. Multi-source satellite data and ground observation statistics are analyzed with geo-statistics method and ecological assessment model. The core analysis of this paper includes ecosystem pattern, quality and service. By means of spatial and temporal scale expansion and multi-dimensional space-time correlation analysis, we examine the trend and stability characteristics of ecosystem change, and evaluate the implementation effect. The results showed that, first, the forest area ratio was 84.5% in 2013, which was significantly higher than the average level in Hainan Island. During 1990-2013, settlement gradually increased in ecological zone. After the implementation of the function zone in 2010, human activity intensity was still increasing, with the area ratio rising from 0.5% to 0.8%. The main land use change was urban construction and land reclamation. Second, water conservation in the ecological function zone was better than that outside the zone. During 1990-2013, water conservation increased slightly, and had obvious fluctuation in different periods. Water conservation change decreased first and then increased during both the periods 1990-2000 and 2000-2013. Water conservation quantity was 0.5178 million cubic metres per square kilometer, which was higher than the average outside the zone. Third, soil conservation in the ecological function zone was also better than that outside the zone. Soil conservation showed dramatic fluctuations and relatively poor stability during 1990-2013. Soil conservation quantity was 19500 tons per square kilometer in the ecological function zone. Fourth, the human disturbance index in the ecological function zone was significantly less than that outside the zone and had lower biodiversity threat level. This would be beneficial to biodiversity conservation. In the ecological function zone, average human disturbance index was 0.3664 and 0.1152 lower than that outside the zone. During 1990-2013, human disturbance index variation range outside the zone was 0.0152, about 5.31 times that of the inner zone. Especially in 2010-2013, the increased range of human disturbance index in the ecological function zone was significantly less than that outside value the zone.

Key words: ecological function zone, ecosystem, ecosystem service, protection effect