地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (2): 333-345.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201802009

• 环境与健康地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于倾向值匹配法的城市建成环境对居民生理健康的影响

张延吉1(),秦波2,唐杰2   

  1. 1. 福州大学建筑学院城乡规划系,福州 350116
    2. 中国人民大学城市规划与管理系,北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-16 出版日期:2018-02-11 发布日期:2018-02-11
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371007)

The impact of urban built environment on residential physical health: Based on propensity score matching

ZHANG Yanji1(),QIN Bo2,TANG Jie2   

  1. 1. Department of Urban and Rural Planning, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China
    2. Department of Urban Planning and Management, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2017-02-16 Online:2018-02-11 Published:2018-02-11
  • Supported by:
    National Nature Science Foundation of China, No.41371007

摘要:

伴随着城市化和机动化进程,肥胖及其引致的慢性疾病已成为中国严峻的社会问题。本文利用2010年中国社会综合调查、空间兴趣点POI、道路网等数据,探究城市建成环境对居民生理健康状况的影响,并通过倾向值匹配法控制自选择机制的干扰。研究发现:① 高密度的土地利用对居民总体的身体健康状况具有负向影响,而功能混合、支路网通达的城市肌理、以及充足的健康设施在降低身体质量指数BMI、抑制超重和减少慢性病方面发挥着积极作用。② 各类建成环境特征对中高社会阶层的影响集中在主观的健康感知,对中低阶层人群的影响则主要作用于客观的健康指标。③ 小尺度范围内的建成环境与中低阶层群体的身体健康水平存在更为密切的关联,但这一规律在中高社会阶层并不明显。本研究证明了主动式空间干预手段在促进居民生理健康过程中的有效性,进而就建成环境的优化策略提出了初步建议。

关键词: 建成环境, 生理健康, 倾向值匹配, 中国社会综合调查

Abstract:

With the process of urbanization and motorization, obesity and chronic diseases have become a serious social problem, but the empirical study on the impact of urban built environment on public physical health is still lacking in Chinese context. In this paper, we use the data from China's general social survey in 2010 and select 6740 samples in 278 urban communities throughout 31 provincial areas. Other geographical data are also introduced into the analysis, such as point of interests and road network surrounding each community. In order to control the interference of self-selection mechanism, this research uses a quasi-experimental method called propensity score matching. According to this empirical analysis, firstly, the study indicates that high-density land use has a negative impact on the overall physical health of the residents, which is contrary to comparatively low density developed cities in Western countries. Nevertheless, similar to international literatures, all of the mixed urban function, urban texture with an accessible branch network, and adequate health facilities play a positive role in reducing BMI, inhibiting overweight and lowering chronic diseases. Secondly, these built environment elements have various impacts on different social classes. The upper class is mainly influenced in the subjective physical health perception while the lower class is more affected in the objective physical health status. Thirdly, there is a closer relationship between the ambient built environment characteristics of small spatial scale and the health status of middle- and low-stratum groups, but this rule is not obvious among middle and high social classes, which reflects that the surrounding environmental quality of public space has a more direct and important impact on the physical health of vulnerable groups. In conclusion, this study proves the effectiveness of active spatial intervention in the process of improving public physical health as well as alleviating health inequality problem, and then puts forward some suggestions on optimization strategy of urban built environment in China.

Key words: built environment, physical health, propensity score matching, Chinese general social survey