地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (2): 276-294.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201802006

• 交通与旅游地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

千岛湖旅游地聚居空间特征及其社会效应

杨兴柱(),孙井东,陆林,王群   

  1. 安徽师范大学国土资源与旅游学院,芜湖 241002
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-14 出版日期:2018-02-11 发布日期:2018-02-11
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471130, 41671136);国家自然科学基金重点项目(41230631)

Spatial characteristics and social effects of residential spaces in the tourist destination Qiandaohu

YANG Xingzhu(),SUN Jingdong,LU Lin,WANG Qun   

  1. College of Territorial Resources and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241002, Anhui, China
  • Received:2017-02-14 Online:2018-02-11 Published:2018-02-11
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41471130, No.41671136;Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41230631

摘要:

作为新兴的重要发展力量,旅游正在不可逆转地改变着聚居空间演变进程。旅游地聚居空间特征及其社会效应是透视旅游地社会转型的重要维度之一,旅游地聚居现象已构成旅游地理学研究的重要命题。以千岛湖为案例,立足社区尺度,应用实地观察法、访谈法、问卷调查方法、GIS空间技术、统计分析法,探究千岛湖旅游地聚居空间发展过程;识别和划分居住社区类型,测算居住社区空间分异度,揭示旅游影响下典型聚居区分布格局;从居住满意度、社会交往和社会融合三个方面,构建聚居空间社会效应指标体系。研究发现:① 伴随着社会经济转型、旅游产业发展与城市更新的不断推进,千岛湖镇聚居空间发展经历了5个发展阶段。② 识别了76个基本空间单元,将76个居住小区划分为乡村社区、商住混合社区、老旧住房社区、一般商品房社区、高档商品房社区、高档别墅区、旅游度假社区7种类型。③ 城市居住空间分异现象存在于旅游地聚居空间。社会阶层越低的社区居住分异度越大,社会阶层较高的社区居住分异度越小。千岛湖镇聚居空间呈现圈层结构分布模式,从湖岸到中心城区,居住等级逐渐降低,乡村社区呈扇型镶嵌于主城区居住空间结构上,老旧住房社区和旅游度假社区分布于千岛湖镇外围。④ 旅游发展导致了聚居空间社会分异,引致旅游地传统社会关系的裂变分化,进一步影响聚居满意度、社会交往和社会融合。千岛湖镇旅游地社区居住总体处于较满意状态,且千岛湖镇社区居住满意度存在明显的空间差异,不同社区个体交友意愿存在差异,大部分居民能较好地适应本地生活。

关键词: 旅游地, 聚居空间特征, 社会效应, 千岛湖

Abstract:

Tourism, an emerging and important driver of development, is irreversibly changing the evolution process of residential spaces. The spatial characteristics and social effects of residential spaces in tourist destinations are one of the most important dimensions for measuring social transformation of an area, and hence are important subjects for the study of tourism geography. This paper, taking the case of Qiandaohu Town, explores the residential space development of this tourist destination with a variety of research methods including field observations, interviews, questionnaires, statistical analysis and GIS technology. It identifies and classifies community types, measures spatial differentiation in living spaces and reveals typical residential space distribution patterns influenced by tourism. It also constructs a residential space social effect index system in terms of the satisfaction with the living space, social interaction and social integration. The research shows that: (1) Amid social and economic transformation, and with the development of the tourism industry and continuous urban renewal, the development of residential spaces has undergone five stages. (2) A total of 76 basic spatial units or communities have been identified, which are classified into rural communities, mixed residential and business communities, old commercially developed communities, commonplace commercially developed communities, high-end commercially developed communities, high-end villas and tourism resorts. (3) The phenomenon of urban residential space differentiation exists in residential areas in tourist destinations. The lower the social status of a residential community is, the greater the residential differentiation turns; the higher the social status, the smaller it becomes. The residential spaces in Qiandaohu Town are distributed in layered spheres. From the lakeside to the city center, the residential grade gradually goes down, with rural communities embedded into the main residential areas like a ladder, and the old residential areas and tourism resorts located in the periphery of Qiandaohu Town. (4) The development of tourism has led to the social differentiation of living spaces, and led to a fracturing of the traditional social relations in tourism destinations, which further affects the satisfaction of the community, social interaction and social integration. Overall, residents in the study area are satisfied with their living spaces, and satisfaction has obvious spatial differences. Residents in different communities differ in their willingness to make friends. Most residents can adapt to the local way of life pretty well.

Key words: tourism destination, spatial characteristics, social effect, Qiandaohu