地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (2): 261-275.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201802005

• 交通与旅游地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于理论旅行视角的人文地理学中想象地理研究反思

翁时秀1,2()   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
    2. 中山大学旅游发展与规划研究中心,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-13 出版日期:2018-02-11 发布日期:2018-02-11
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41201139)

Rethinking imaginative geographies research in human geography: An analysis based on the perspective of "Traveling Theory"

WENG Shixiu1,2()   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. Center for Tourism Planning & Research of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
  • Received:2017-03-13 Online:2018-02-11 Published:2018-02-11
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41201139

摘要:

作为批判概念的“想象地理”对地缘政治和日常生活中的后殖民地理问题具有很强的分析能力。本文借用Edward Said“理论旅行”分析框架对想象地理概念引入人文地理学的最初过程及此后想象地理研究的发展演变进行了较为全面的分析,指出人文地理学对想象地理的真正关注始于20世纪90年代初,历经马克思主义地理学的语境压力,想象地理概念进入地理学并逐渐发展为南北关系问题和种族问题研究的核心概念之一。在这些研究中,这一概念充分展示了其解释力和批判激情,但同时也逐渐被体制化,进而产生了“体制化问题”——以批判“话语霸权”为目的的想象地理概念反而成为了一种话语霸权,研究者的批判意识逐渐减弱。基于以上梳理,本文指出,对概念和理论所处的历史和情境始终进行批判性审视是保持批判意识的根本。由此引发的进一步思考是:中国人文地理学的发展必然需要引介西方概念和理论,但在引介过程中应注意反思自身面临的学术后殖民问题,审视学术研究的历史和情境,始终对概念和理论的前提条件、适用范围与理论特性保持警觉,在西化与本土化之间,保持应有的批判意识。

关键词: 想象地理, 理论旅行, 后殖民理论, 体制化, 批判意识

Abstract:

The concept of imaginative geographies demonstrates a strong analytical power for geopolitics and postcolonial geographical issues in daily life. The present study adopts the theoretical view of "Traveling Theory" proposed by Edward Said to develop a comprehensive analysis covering the origin and evolution of imaginative geographies research in human geography. This study holds that the real start of the attention of human geography academia on the concept of imaginative geographies was found in the early 1990s. Under the contextual pressure of Marxist geography, the concept of imaginative geographies was adopted in geography and gradually developed into a core concept in studies of the North-South relations as well as ethnic and racial issues. The topics involved in the previous research include global issues and international relations, nation-states and nationalism, the social and cultural issues, and the daily lives. These studies reveal the basic logic of imaginative geographies: By dividing space into "our places" and "other places", "we" imagine and construct the differentiation of "we" and "others", and because of the desires, fantasies and fears to the others, "we" construct the imaginative geographies about the others; these imaginative geographies would be used and reconstructed in international relationship, the construction of nation-states and people's everyday lives. In these studies, the theory fully displays its explanatory and critical nature. Meanwhile it exposes the problem of institutionalization: imaginative geographies, as a critique of "discourse hegemony", has become discourse hegemony per se, which results in a possible loss of its due critical consciousness. Based on the analyses above, the present study further points out that as critical theories and empirical theories differ greatly in logics, due caution should be paid to the contexts in which a critical theory is introduced, and that critical investigations into the historical and contextual backgrounds should always be the fundamental principles in maintaining the critical consciousness. In addition, it reaches a profound conclusion: human geography in China should reflect the post-colonial academic problems it faces, examine the history and context of academic research, and maintain the due critical consciousness between westernization and indigenization.

Key words: imaginative geographies, traveling theory, postcolonial theory, institutionalization, critical consciousness