地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (1): 129-137.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201801011

• 地表过程与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

1717-2011年高宝诸湖的演变过程及其原因分析

杨霄(),韩昭庆()   

  1. 复旦大学历史地理研究中心,上海 200433
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-06 出版日期:2018-01-31 发布日期:2018-01-31
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(15JJD770008)

The change of the Gaobao lakes and its driving forces (1717-2011)

YANG Xiao(),HAN Zhaoqing()   

  1. Center for Historical Geographic Studies, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
  • Received:2017-01-06 Online:2018-01-31 Published:2018-01-31
  • Supported by:
    Key Project of Humanity & Social Science Research Base of Ministry of Education, No.15JJD770008

摘要:

高宝诸湖位于江苏省中部,紧邻大运河西岸,是淮河重要的入江水道。近300年来受到黄淮关系演变和人类垦殖活动的影响,高宝诸湖的形态发生了较大变化。在对古今地图中高宝诸湖的形态进行数字化和空间比较的基础上,结合对历史文献和部分钻孔资料的综合分析,将高宝诸湖的演变分为三个阶段:① 清康熙至乾隆年间为近300年来水域面积最大的时期,1717年水域面积为1606.02 km2;② 清中期以后受淮河通过高家堰不定期排泄泥沙的影响,湖中沙洲开始发育;③ 1851年开始,淮河改道经由洪泽湖东南的三河闸,通过高宝诸湖进入长江,其携带的部分泥沙在高宝诸湖沉淀下来,形成三河三角洲,随着三河三角洲在在高宝诸湖内的不断淤涨,湖面萎缩速度加快,1868年湖面缩小到1494.03 km2,1916年为1071.97 km2,2011年为886.90 km2。洪泽湖泥沙是导致近300年来高宝诸湖不断萎缩的主要原因,此外,圩田的兴建进一步加剧了这一过程。

关键词: 淮河, 高宝诸湖, 洪泽湖, 三河

Abstract:

The Gaobao lakes refer to a group of lakes to the west bank of the Grand Canal in the central part of Jiangsu Province. They used to be one of the important passages for the Huaihe River draining into the Yangtze River. Under the influence of the changing relationship between the Yellow River and the Huaihe River and land reclamation activities, the shape of the Gaobao lakes has changed dramatically in recent 300 years. This article analyzes three digitized earliest surveyed maps of the Gaobao lakes, discusses related historical literature and investigates some borehole data. In doing so, this article discovers that the evolution of the Gaobao lakes can be divided into three stages. The first stage is from the Kangxi reign to the Qianlong reign (1662-1795), when the Gaobao lakes in recent 300 years reached the top in area - 1606 km2 on the first surveyed map of China complied in 1717. The second stage is after the Qianlong reign, when sandbars began to develop in the Gaobao lakes as the sediments from the Hongze Lake gradually deposited to its northwest. The third stage is after 1851 when the Sanhe River which originated from the southeast part of the Hongze Lake became a main passage for the Huaihe River to empty into the Yangtze River. The Sanhe River brought a large amount of sediments into the Gaobao lakes and formed the Sanhe delta. With the expansion of the Sanhe delta, the Gaobao lakes have been quickly shrinking, from 1606 km2 in 1717 to 1494 km2 in 1868, 1072 km2 in 1916 and 887 km2 in 2011. This article argues that the sediments deposited from the Hongze Lake is a main reason for the shrinkage of the Gaobao lakes. Human reclamation activities expedited the process of sedimentation and changes of the Gaobao lakes.

Key words: Huaihe River, Gaobao lakes, Hongze Lake, Sanhe River