地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (1): 92-103.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201801008

• 地表过程与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国典型自然保护区生境状况时空变化特征

祝萍1,2(),黄麟1(),肖桐3,王军邦1,4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 环境保护部卫星环境应用中心,北京 100094
    4. 中国科学院生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-09 出版日期:2018-01-31 发布日期:2018-01-31
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFC0506404);中国科学院前沿科学重点研究项目(QYZDB-SSW-DQC005);国家“十二五”科技支撑计划课题(2013BAC03B00)

Dynamic changes of habitats in China's typical nature reserves on spatial and temporal scales

ZHU Ping1,2(),HUANG Lin1(),XIAO Tong3,WANG Junbang1,4   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Satellite Environment Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100094, China
    4. Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2017-01-09 Online:2018-01-31 Published:2018-01-31
  • Supported by:
    The National Key Research and Development Program, No.2017YFC0506404;The Key Programs for Frontier Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.QYZDB-SSW-DQC005;Key Projects in the National Science & Technology Pillar Program during the Twelfth Five-year Plan Period, No.2013BAC03B00

摘要:

中国已建立各类自然保护区2740个,占全国陆地面积的14.8%。本文以典型国家级自然保护区为例,基于遥感反演、模型模拟、空间分析等方法,获得植被覆盖度、净初级生产力(NPP)和土地覆被时空数据集,分析2000-2015年中国不同区域、不同类型自然保护区生境状况时空变化及人类扰动的影响,进而评估自然保护区在栖息地及生物多样性保护方面的效果。结果表明:2000-2015年,国家级自然保护区植被覆盖度从36.3%提高到37.1%,各类型自然保护区均有不同程度提高,其中森林类保护区年增速0.11%,草原草甸类0.84%,内陆湿地类0.21%,荒漠生态类0.09%,野生动物类和野生植物类则分别为0.11%和0.08%。草原草甸类、内陆湿地类、荒漠生态类、野生动物类自然保护区植被NPP年增速分别为2.06 g·m-2、1.23 g·m-2、0.28 g·m-2、0.4 g·m-2,而森林类和野生植物类则分别以3.45 g·m-2和2.35 g·m-2的年速率减少。近15年,国家级自然保护区内人类扰动呈现微弱变化,除青藏高原区和南亚热带湿润区内保护区人类扰动略微下降以外,其他区域均有所增强,特别是北亚热带和温带湿润区,其保护区人类扰动由4.70%明显增至5.35%。

关键词: 自然保护区, 植被覆盖度, NPP, 人类扰动, 中国

Abstract:

Establishment of protected areas is one of the most important approaches for biodiversity conservation. Until 2015, China had established 2740 sites for nature reserves with a total area of 1.47 million km2, which covering 14.8% of Chinese land surface. Based on remote sensing inversion, model simulation and spatial analysis methods, this study analyzed spatial and temporal variations of habitat from vegetation coverage, net primary production (NPP) and their driving forces in different types and climate zones on the typical nature reserves of China, in the first 15 years of the 21st Century. Results showed that from 2000 to 2015, the vegetation coverage of national nature reserves increased from 36.3% to 37.1%, with all types of nature reserves improved to some extent. The forest ecological nature reserves observed annual growth of 0.1%, grassland meadow type 0.8%, inland wetlands classes 0.2%, desert ecological class 0.1%, wild animal 0.1% and wild plants 0.1%. The NPP of grassland meadow, inland wetlands, desert ecology, wild animal nature reserve had a growth of 2.0 g·m-2, 1.2 g·m-2, 0.3 g·m-2 and 0.4 g·m-2 respectively. However, the NPP of forest ecological and wild plants nature reserves reduced by a rate of 3.5 g·m-2 and 2.5 g·m-2 respectively. In the 15 years, national nature reserves had a weak change from human disturbance, in addition to nature reserves which located in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the south subtropical humid area with a slightly fall, others are increased, especially in the north subtropical and temperate humid zone, the human disturbance increased significantly from 4.7% to 5.4%.

Key words: nature reserves, habitat, vegetation coverage, NPP, China