地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (1): 25-40.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201801003

• 气候变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江中下游流域旱涝急转事件特征分析及其与ENSO的关系

闪丽洁1(),张利平1,2(),张艳军1,佘敦先1,夏军1   

  1. 1. 武汉大学水资源与水电工程科学国家重点实验室,武汉 430072
    2. 黄冈师范学院,黄冈 438000
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-24 出版日期:2018-01-31 发布日期:2018-01-31
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(51339004);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFA0603704);湖北省科技计划项目(2015BCA290)

Characteristics of dry-wet abrupt alternation events in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin and their relationship with ENSO

SHAN Lijie1(),ZHANG Liping1,2(),ZHANG Yanjun1,SHE Dunxian1,XIA Jun1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
    2. School of Tourism Culture and Geographical Science, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000, Hubei, China
  • Received:2017-04-24 Online:2018-01-31 Published:2018-01-31
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.51339004;National Key Research and Development Program, No.2017YFA0603704;Hubei Province Science and Technology Program, No.2015BCA290

摘要:

基于长江中下游流域75个雨量站1960-2015年的日降水资料,通过对原有的旱涝急转指数加以改进,定义了日尺度旱涝急转指数(Dry-Wet Abrupt Alternation Index, DWAAI),全面分析长江中下游流域夏季(5-8月)旱涝急转事件的时空演变特征,并讨论了旱涝急转事件与事件发生前太平洋海表温度的关系。结果表明:① 改进的DWAAI综合考虑了事件前后期旱涝差异与急转快慢程度,筛选事件更加全面。② 总体来说,自20世纪60年以来,流域内发生旱涝急转事件的区域范围越来越广,事件频率和强度均具有逐年增长趋势。旱涝急转事件主要发生在5月和6月,且汉江水系、中游干流区间、洞庭湖水系北部和鄱阳湖水系西北部地区为事件高发区。③ 旱涝急转事件与事件发生前Nino 3.4区域海温持续异常偏低存在一定关系。在发生时间上,La Ni?a现象具有一定的先兆作用,41.04%的事件发生在La Ni?a现象衰亡期或现象结束后8个月内;在事件强度上,流域内站点的DWAAI与事件发生前第1~6个月的Nino 3.4区域海温异常值存在显著的负相关性,尤其是在鄱阳湖水系和中游干流区间,二者负相关性最强。研究结果可以为长江中下游流域防洪抗旱工作提供一定的依据。

关键词: 旱涝急转, 长江中下游流域, 时空演变特征, La Ni?a

Abstract:

Based on the daily precipitation data from 75 rainfall gauging stations covering 1960-2015 in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin, we analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of dry-wet abrupt alternation (DWAA) events during the summer (from May to August) and its relationship with ENSO by defining the daily scale dry-wet abrupt alternation index (DWAAI) based on the modification of original index. The results showed that: (1) Modified DWAAI, which was defined by taking into account the differences of dry-wet degree between the earlier and later periods as well as how slowly or quickly the process changes from dry to wet in the abrupt alteration period, could be used to identify DWAA events accurately and effectively. (2) On the whole, areas where DWAA events occurred had expanded gradually since 1960. Meanwhile, the frequencies and intensities of such events had gradually increased over time. DWAA events mainly occurred in May-June, and the Hanjiang River watershed sub-basin, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, the northern Dongting Lake watershed sub-basin and the northwestern Poyang Lake watershed sub-basin were high-incidence areas of such events. (3) There were some relationships between DWAA events and phenomena of continuously low SST in Nino3.4 region before such events occurred. Specifically, La Ni?a early-warning reacted to the occurrence of DWAA events. About 41.04% of such events occurred during decline stages of La Ni?a or within the first 8 months after La Ni?a ended. In terms of intensity, there were significant negative correlations between DWAAI at all the stations and SST anomalies in Nino 3.4 region within 6 months before DWAA events occurred, especially in the Poyang Lake watershed sub-basin and the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. The conclusions indicated that these methods and results were meaningful for the fighting against drought and flood in the Yangtze River Basin.

Key words: dry-wet abrupt alternation, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin, spatial-temporal evolution characteristics, La Ni?a