地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (12): 2265-2280.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201712011

• 交通物流 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于“21世纪海上丝绸之路”的中国国际航运网络演化

王列辉1,2(), 朱艳1,2   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,上海 200062
    2. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200241
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-31 修回日期:2017-07-25 出版日期:2017-12-25 发布日期:2017-12-26
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王列辉(1978-), 男, 浙江慈溪人, 副教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110008083M), 主要研究方向为交通运输地理、城市地理。E-mail: lhwang@re.ecnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371140);国家社科基金重大项目(16ZDA016)

The evolution of China's international maritime network based on the "21st Century Maritime Silk Road"

Liehui WANG1,2(), Yan ZHU1,2   

  1. 1. The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2016-10-31 Revised:2017-07-25 Online:2017-12-25 Published:2017-12-26
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41371140;National Social Science Foundation of China, No.16ZDA016

摘要:

建设海上航运通道和国际航海运输网络,增强国际联系与基础设施互联互通,是构建“21世纪海上丝绸之路”(简称“海丝之路”)的基本条件。基于1995年、2005年、2015年的中国集装箱航运数据,论文运用枢纽度模型、复杂网络方法以及赫希曼—赫芬达尔指数等分析工具,重点分析了中国与“海丝之路”沿线国家的航运网络空间格局。研究表明:① 国际航运网络特征:1995-2015年中国与“海丝之路”沿线国家的联系范围扩大;国际航线分布呈现集中化趋势和距离衰减特征;首位联系国家保持稳定,首位联系港口在同一个国家内部变动较大;② 国内航运网络特征:中国通往“海丝之路”沿线国家的国际航海运输枢纽形成,网络层级结构明显,由一主一副的双中心(香港港、上海港)向四中心(上海港、宁波港、深圳港、香港港)发展,且上海港—宁波港航线重合度较高,竞争激烈,香港港部分航线转移到深圳港,形成错位发展;国内港口和航线分布呈现分散化的特点,航线南退北进,体现在西南沿海地区的港口退出“海丝之路”航运网络、珠三角港口地位的下降、长三角港口地位的上升、环渤海地区逐渐与“海丝之路”沿线国家建立起直接联系;枢纽港口对外联系方向较为集中,但已出现分化,除了新加坡港外,巴生港、丹戎帕拉帕斯港、科伦坡港等港口与中国联系紧密;③ 整体上,“海丝之路”沿线航运网络经历了发育阶段、等级化阶段、网络化阶段的发展演化,受全球化、运输技术变革、地缘政治—经济演变等因素的影响。

关键词: “21世纪海上丝绸之路”, 航运网络, 空间格局, 枢纽, 中国

Abstract:

The fundamental goals of building the "21st Century Maritime Silk Road" are to construct a maritime transport channel and international maritime network and to enhance international relations and the interconnectedness of infrastructure. Using international shipping data from China's container ports for 1995, 2005 and 2015, this paper applies methodologies such as the graph theory model, the complex network method, and the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index. First, this paper analyses the spatial pattern of the international maritime network between China and other countries located along the "21st Century Maritime Silk Road". Second, this paper identifies international maritime hub ports and discusses the status of domestic ports. The main conclusions are as follows. (1) The range of the maritime network between China and other countries on the "21st Century Maritime Silk Road" expanded between 1995 and 2015. However, some ports, such as Singapore, Klang, Colombo, and Suez, built closer relations with Chinese ports, and ports in East Africa established few shipping routes connected to Chinese ports. These developments were affected by the condition of the ports' locations and by international trade. (2) It is clear that the hierarchy of China's ports proceeds from two hubs (Hong Kong and Shanghai) to four hubs (Shanghai, Ningbo, Shenzhen, and Hong Kong). Ningbo port developed very quickly, while the status of Hong Kong port underwent a relative decline. The four hubs can be divided into two models of adjacent ports. The high degree of overlap of shipping routes resulted in fierce competition between the ports of Ningbo and Shanghai. The ports of Shenzhen and Hong Kong have different radiation scopes, and consequently, their development has been dislocated. (3) There are four port clusters in China connecting to ports on the "21st Century Maritime Silk Road". The ports in the southwest port cluster disappeared in the later period of this study, and the status of the Pearl River Delta port cluster underwent a relative decline, while the status of the port cluster in the Yangtze River Delta improved. The Bohai port cluster gradually established direct connections with the countries on the "21st Century Maritime Silk Road". (4) Overall, the maritime network has experienced three stages of growth: the development stage, the hierarchical stage and the networking stage. Globalization, changes in transportation technology, and the evolution of geopolitics and the economy are the most important mechanisms driving the maritime network.

Key words: "21st Century Maritime Silk Road", maritime network, spatial pattern, hubs, China