地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (12): 2226-2240.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201712008

• 交通物流 • 上一篇    下一篇

枢纽港口城市港航服务业空间组织机理——以上海市为例

曹有挥1(), 梁双波1, 吴威1(), 陈欢1,2, 叶士琳1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院流域地理学重点实验室 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,南京 210008
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-20 修回日期:2017-08-08 出版日期:2017-12-25 发布日期:2017-12-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:曹有挥(1959-), 男, 江苏扬州人, 博士, 研究员, 从事区域经济与运输地理研究。E-mail: yhcao@niglas.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771139, 41271137, 41671132)

Spatial organizational mechanism of port and shipping service industry in a hub port city: A case study of Shanghai

Youhui CAO1(), Shuangbo LIANG1, Wei WU1(), Huan CHEN1,2, Shilin YE1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2017-01-20 Revised:2017-08-08 Online:2017-12-25 Published:2017-12-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41771139, No.41271137, No.41671132

摘要:

基于全球生产网络理论和地理尺度关联思想,本文构建了一个多尺度相统一的港航服务业空间组织理论分析框架。归纳演绎表明,在全球尺度上,受经济全球化、技术变革、产业组织变革和国家/地方(政府)战略响应等多层级因素与机制的相互影响,少数枢纽港口城市成为港航服务业集聚发展的主要节点,其产业结构重心由运输仓储类向代理与技术服务类、高级服务类逐次转移;在城市尺度上,受港航服务业不同行业的内在属性以及城市不同区位的禀赋特性的共同作用,从中心向外围总体呈现高级服务类—代理与技术服务类—运输仓储类圈层式分布格局。以上述框架为指引,依据近20年来上海市港航服务业企业数据,对其结构演替与格局演化进行了实证分析。统计分析表明,1996-2014年运输仓储类、代理与技术服务类和高级服务类企业数占企业总数比率分别由77.81%、20.15%和2.04%变动为47.78%、46.20%和6.03%,产业结构明显向价值链高端攀升。圈层、热点分析和核密度估计显示,运输仓储类企业近郊区化布局趋势逐步强化;代理与技术服务类企业中心集聚明显,跳跃式扩散初显;高级服务类企业高度中心极化,外围温点初步发育。由此进一步分析了影响结构演替和布局演化的宏观与微观机制。

关键词: 枢纽港口城市, 港航服务业, 空间组织, 机理, 上海市

Abstract:

Based on the theory of industry evolution and scale coupling, this article constructs a multi-scale unified theoretic analysis framework of spatial organizational mechanism of port & shipping service industry. On the global scale, an induction and deduction analysis has shown that under the influence of economic globalization, technological reform, industrial organization reform, regional strategic responses, and other multi-level factors and mechanisms, a hierarchical assignment structure has been formed in port & shipping service industry, with a minority of hub port cities becoming pivotal nodes of port & shipping service agglomeration and development, of which the structural gravity has been shifted from transportation & warehousing to agent & technical services, and subsequently to advanced port & shipping service enterprises. On the urban scale, owing to the differences of the intrinsic attributes of port & shipping service industry and the location endowment, the spatial layout of port and shipping service enterprises has displayed a distribution pattern, which automatically assigns advanced class, agent & technical class and transportation & warehousing class respectively from the center to the periphery of a city. The framework analyzed above has been used in addition with the positional data of port and shipping service enterprises in the city of Shanghai from 1996 to 2014 to corroborate an empirical study on the processes, structures, and patterns of the city's spatial organization of port and shipping service industry. The statistical analysis suggests that the proportions of transportation & warehousing class, agent & technical class, and advanced class of port & shipping service enterprises have been converted from 77.81%, 20.15%, and 2.04% to 47.78%, 46.20%, and 6.03%, respectively, from 1996 to 2014, with a manifest trend of industrial upgrading to the higher end of the value chain. The methodological approach of this article includes a circle distance analysis, a hotspot analysis and a kernel density estimation, which collectively evince that: (1) the tendency of suburbanization of transportation & warehousing enterprises has been strengthened; (2) the agglomeration trend of the agent & technical enterprises remains strong, along with a noticeable diffusion pattern with intermittent character; (3) the advanced enterprises are highly polarized to the center, with warm spots developing steadily in the peripheral areas. As the final stage of the analysis, this article enunciated the macro and micro mechanisms that have affected the structural and distributional patterns indicated above.

Key words: hub port city, port & shipping service industry, spatial organization, mechanism, Shanghai