地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (12): 2214-2225.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201712007

• 区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于性别比较的北京城市居民活动的时空弹性研究

申悦1(), 柴彦威2()   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,上海 200062
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-26 修回日期:2017-08-09 出版日期:2017-12-25 发布日期:2017-12-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:申悦(1987-), 女, 上海人, 博士, 讲师, 主要研究方向为城市社会地理学与行为地理学。E-mail: shenyue0519@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41501180, 41529101, 41571144);教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地基金项目(16JJD790012)

Space-time flexibility of daily activities and gender differences: A case study of Beijing

Yue SHEN1(), Yanwei CHAI2()   

  1. 1. The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2017-02-26 Revised:2017-08-09 Published:2017-12-25 Online:2017-12-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41501180, No.41529101, No.41571144;The Project of Key Centers for Humanities and Social Sciences of the Ministry of Education, No.16JJD790012

摘要:

基于时空间行为的城市空间解读已成为重要的研究范式,源于时间地理学的时空弹性反映了人们受到的时空制约以及拥有的机会,具有重要的研究意义。本文从性别比较的视角出发,对居民日常活动的时空弹性特征及其影响因素进行分析。基于北京上地—清河地区GPS与活动日志相结合的居民一周活动与出行数据,利用其中由被调查者汇报的活动在时间和空间上的可变程度作为对活动时空弹性的测度。在对不同性别、不同活动的时空弹性进行描述性统计和比较的基础上,利用次序Logit模型,分析个人及家庭社会经济属性、活动属性对于活动时空弹性的影响,以及这种影响的性别差异性。研究发现:活动的时空弹性在不同活动、不同个体之间存在着巨大的差异,其中活动类型的影响尤其显著;女性的活动具有更强的时空弹性,反映了中国的家庭分工与西方具有较大的差异;活动的时间弹性与空间弹性之间存在着较为复杂的关系,二者的相互影响机理及其对个体时空可达性的影响有待进一步探讨。对于活动时空弹性的分析反映了居民行为的复杂性和潜在特征,有助于理解行为决策机制以及城市运行的内在机理,也为相关的规划、政策提供了实证依据。

关键词: 时空制约, 时空弹性, 性别比较, 行为空间, 北京

Abstract:

During the social and economic transition process, the urban structure of China's cities has changed dramatically and residents' behavior has become more complicated. Against this background, the space-time behavior approach has become an important perspective through which to understand urban space in China. Space-time fixity and flexibility have been recognized as important concepts in transportation, human geography and feminist geography, as they reflect the space-time constraints and opportunities of people and influence their access and mobility in important ways, but the direct empirical studies to date are far from sufficient. Gender differentiation is a key issue and an important perspective in urban studies. Many studies of Western countries have found that women experience more fixity constraints than men, which leads to lower accessibility to job opportunities. However, gender differences of space-time fixity and flexibility in China, where the different institutional, social, economic and cultural background might lead to different results, are still not clear.

This paper takes temporal and spatial flexibilities as the objects of research, and examines how individual, household and activity attributes impact them from a gender differentiation perspective. Activity-travel diaries and 7-day GPS tracking data of 709 respondents in the Shangdi-Qinghe area of Beijing from a 2012 activity-travel survey are used, and temporal and spatial flexibilities are measured with the respondents' self-reported information. Firstly, we analyze the flexibility levels of individuals' activities by activity type and gender using descriptive statistics. Then, ordered logit models are used to investigate the relationships between space-time flexibility and attributes of individual, household and activity, and how these relationships vary between males and females.

The results show that temporal and spatial flexibility levels vary significantly among different activities, individuals and households, with activity type being a key factor. Chinese females do not perceive significantly stronger fixity constraints than males, as existing empirical studies of Western countries found. In fact, the activities of females are more flexible in China, which reflects different divisions of responsibilities and conceptions of intergenerational assistance in Chinese households. The relationship between temporal flexibility and spatial flexibility is quite complex, and the interaction of the two dimensions of flexibility and its impacts on space-time accessibility needs more attention. This study of space-time flexibility reflects the complexity and potential characteristics of residents' behavior, and helps us get a better understanding of the mechanism of people's decision-making and cities’ operation. It also provides empirical evidence for relevant planning and policy making.

Key words: space-time constraints, space-time flexibility, gender differences, behavioral space, Beijing