地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (10): 1904-1919.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201710013

• 旅游地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国外商旅游饭店业投资的空间动态差异与驱动要素解析

李涛1,2(), 刘家明1(), 王磊1,2,3, 朱鹤1,2, 余玲1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    3. 宁夏大学人文学院旅游系,银川 750021
  • 收稿日期:2016-12-23 修回日期:2017-05-05 出版日期:2017-11-10 发布日期:2017-11-06
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李涛(1988-), 山东临沂人, 博士生, 主要研究方向为旅游地理与旅游规划。E-mail:nnulitao@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571139);宁夏高等学校科研项目(NGY2015014);国家旅游局“研究型英才”项目(WMYC20151110)

Spatial differences in international investment in hotels and its driving factors in China

Tao LI1,2(), Jiaming LIU1(), Lei WANG1,2,3, He ZHU1,2, Ling YU1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. School of Humanity, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China
  • Received:2016-12-23 Revised:2017-05-05 Online:2017-11-10 Published:2017-11-06
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41130748;Research Project of University in Ningxia, No.NGY2015014;Research-oriented Talents Project of National Tourism Administration, No.WMYC20151110

摘要:

旅游饭店作为中国旅游业对外开放的最前沿,一直以来是外商资本配置、汇集和流动较为活跃的领域。外商资本的进入将中国旅游业联接到世界金融体系的同时,随着中国对外开放的深入,其吸引外资的环境也发生了巨大变化,必然导致外商资本在华投资空间格局的演变。研究对1991-2014年中国31省域外商旅游饭店业投资及社会经济面板数据进行分析,发现期间外商投资的空间差异呈整体缩小趋势,并随经济、人口和消费格局演化,其标准椭圆重心向北偏移,且在不同尺度上受对外政策、经济差异、资源条件等要素作用范围影响,空间差异的形成机制与过程差异明显。继而,引入管理学“钻石模型”构建了解释引起这一差异的评价体系,定量化分析了省域旅游饭店业产业环境与市场条件对外商资本空间流动方向、规模和效益所发挥的主导作用。最后,结合当前“一带一路”与“走出去”的战略需求,总结了外商在华旅游饭店业投资空间差异对全球化背景下中国引导外资进入和开展海外旅游投资的启示,并就复杂科学发展背景下旅游地理学发展进行了讨论。

关键词: 外商资本, 旅游饭店业, 动态差异, 驱动要素, 中国

Abstract:

Historical and empirical evidence shows that tourism was the pioneer industry to the development of international trade and economic globalization. As the important amenities and attraction spots, hotels have been the earliest tourism sector opened to international market. And the international investment in hotels (IIH) has empowered tourism industry and foreign direct investment (FDI) in China, especially, since the implementation of reform and opening up policy. In the evolution of global economy and domestic tourism, the spatial pattern of IIH also changed with consumption, transport accessibility, preferential policies and market scale, varying from south to north, and east to west in China. Spatial difference is a mainstream issue in the field of geography. IIH presented obvious discrepancy among provinces in China, due to the multiplex environment, economic conditions, industrial basis and demands. The study, firstly, introduced Coefficient of Variation (CV) to measure the spatial differences of IIH based on international investment data in tourist hotels in China. The results revealed that the fluctuation of CVIIH decreased since the 1990s but the center of Standard Deviation Ellipse about IIH skew toward North China, following the shift of barycenter in population, economy and tourism consumption. According to the theory of economic geography, it is assumed that the development of IIH was related to local economy and social environment. Secondly, the paper explored the spatial pattern of IIH and depicted its different characteristics, which were influenced by their sphere of spatial effect and institutional flexibility of decision-making. At the national level, the unbalanced patterns "the South was higher than the North and the East was better than the West", were keeping stable during 1991-2014. At the provincial level, there were three types of IIH evolution pattern, namely, U-shaped, inverted U-shaped and irregular linear growth. Thirdly, the paper quoted the Diamond Model as the theoretical basis to investigate the role of driving factors affecting spatial differences in IIH in China. At the same time, statistical methods were used to learn the relationship and quantify the role of factors. Furthermore, we concluded that the industrial environment and market demand were the most important factors that affect the dynamic differences of IIH in China. What's more, the results can also cast light on the "Belt and Road Initiative" that helps China advance the communication with Southeast Asia, South Asia, Middle East, East Africa, Central Asia, and European countries. Finally, the research inspired us that extra-congregated sources of IIH were not beneficial to the equilibrium of international capital in China and the enhancement of competition ability to domestic hotels. Thus, China's traditional foreign investment strategy, under which China has invested mostly in Western Europe and America, should be revised to adapt to the new global capital environment, and the government should take reasonable actions to promote the implementation of the revised investment strategy so that the need for cooperation with more countries will be met.

Key words: spatial differences, driving factors, International Investment in Hotels (IIT), China