地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (10): 1812-1826.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201710007

• 区域与产业地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

1985年来环渤海地区港口体系位序—规模分布及作用机制

郭建科1(), 陈园月1, 于旭会2, 王海壮1   

  1. 1. 辽宁师范大学海洋经济与可持续发展研究中心,大连 116029
    2. 大连理工大学建设工程学部 海岸和近海工程国家重点实验室,大连 116023
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-26 修回日期:2017-09-18 出版日期:2017-11-10 发布日期:2017-11-06
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:郭建科(1980-), 男, 山西长治人, 博士, 副教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110008493M), 主要从事交通物流与港口空间组织、海洋经济地理研究。E-mail:gjianke98@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571126, 41571122);国家社会科学重大项目(14ZDB131)

Rank-size distribution and mechanism of port system in the Bohai Rim during the past thirty years

Jianke GUO1(), Yuanyue CHEN1, Xuhui YU2, Haizhuang WANG1   

  1. 1. Center for Studies of Marine Economy and Sustainable Development, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, Liaoning, China
    2. Faculty of Infrastructure Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, Liaoning, China
  • Received:2017-04-26 Revised:2017-09-18 Online:2017-11-10 Published:2017-11-06
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41571126, No.41571122;Key Project of National Social Science Foundation of China, No.14ZDB131

摘要:

运用位序—规模法则与核密度方法,以近30年来各港口货物吞吐量及集装箱吞吐量为主要指标,刻画环渤海地区港口体系的规模分布特征,分析其作用机制。结果表明:① 总体看,环渤海地区港口体系具有一定位序—规模分布特征,但不同阶段、不同规模的港口在位序分布上出现明显分化,港口区域化特征愈发明显。② 港口货物吞吐量位序—规模分布的无标度区数量先增后减,最终由单分形变为双分形结构。区域港口体系经历了高位序平衡发展、中小港口突破、大中小港口差异化发展、枢纽港竞合下的港口融合四个阶段。港口集装箱吞吐量位序—规模分布的变化轨迹呈现外接式分割发展、枢纽港形成及新兴港口融入、支线港大型化和集装箱网络整合四个阶段。两者在发展节点上基本吻合;港口集中化与分散化交织进行,货物总吞吐量的分散化早于集装箱运输,分散趋势较为明显。③ 环渤海地区港口体系位序—规模演化的作用机制突出表现为自然经济地理约束下的大港口主导作用明显、区域化和竞争压力倒逼港口合作并推动港口实现自组织协调、能源输出特征及转型推动新兴港口快速成长三方面。

关键词: 环渤海地区, 港口体系, 位序—, 规模法则, kernel密度估计

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigated the characteristics of the scale distribution of the Bohai port system and analyzed its mechanism using the rank-size law and the kernel density method. The port cargo throughput and the container throughput over the recent 30 years were used as an indicator. Some results were obtained as follows: (1) The port system in the Bohai Rim has some characteristics of rank-size distribution, but there are significant differences in the rank-size distribution of ports in different stages and on different scales, and the port regionalization is becoming more and more clear. (2) The number of non-scale areas of the rank-size distribution of the port cargo throughput increases first and then decreases, and the single fractal is transformed into a two-fractal structure. Regional port system has experienced four stages: (a) balanced development of ports with high rank order, (b) breakthrough of small and medium ports, (c) differential development of large, medium and small ports, and (d) port integration under the competition and cooperation of hub ports. The change track of the rank-size distribution of the port container throughput has also experienced four stages: (a) external segmentation development, (b) formation of the hub port and the integration of emerging ports, (c) large scale of feeder port, and (d) integration of the container network. They are consistent on the development node. The concentration and decentralization of ports are interwoven. The total goods throughput is decentralized earlier than the container transport, and the dispersion trend of the total throughput is relatively obvious. (3) There are three characteristics of the port rank-size evolution in the Bohai Rim: (a) The dominant role of large ports is obvious under physical and economic geography. (b) The regionalization and competitive pressures force port cooperation and promote port to achieve self-organizing coordination. (c) The output characteristics and the transformation of the energy promote the rapid growth of emerging ports.

Key words: Bohai Rim, port system, rank-size law, kernel density estimation