地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (9): 1594-1605.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201709005

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1959年来中国天山冰川资源时空变化

邢武成1(), 李忠勤1,2(), 张慧2, 张明军1, 梁鹏斌1, 牟建新1   

  1. 1. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院,兰州 730070
    2. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院 冰冻圈国家重点实验室,兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-16 修回日期:2017-07-20 出版日期:2017-09-30 发布日期:2017-10-12
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:邢武成(1984-), 男, 甘肃张掖人, 硕士, 研究方向为冰川变化与地理信息技术。E-mail: gsauxing@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471058);国家自然科学基金重大研究计划(91425303);National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41471058;National Natural Science Foundation Research Program, No.91425303

Spatial-temporal variation of glacier resources in ChineseTianshan Mountains since 1959

Wucheng XING1(), Zhongqin LI1,2(), Hui ZHANG2, Mingjun ZHANG1, Pengbin LIANG1, Jianxin MU1   

  1. 1. College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Cryosphere Sciences, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2017-04-16 Revised:2017-07-20 Online:2017-09-30 Published:2017-10-12

摘要:

基于两期冰川编目数据与气象数据,对天山1959年来冰川资源的时空变化特征进行研究。研究发现:① 天山地区现有冰川7934条,面积7179.77 km2,冰储量756.48 km3。冰川数量以面积< 1 km2的冰川居多,面积以1~10 km2和≥ 20 km2的冰川为主,冰川集中分布在海拔3800~4800 m之间。② 在四级流域中,阿克苏河流域冰川面积最大为1721.75 km2,面积最小的是伊吾河流域,为56.03 km2。在各市(州)中,阿克苏地区冰川资源量最多,其面积和储量分别占天山总量的43.28%和68.85%;冰川资源量最少的市(州)是吐鲁番地区,面积和储量仅占天山总量的0.23%和0.07%。③ 1959年来,天山地区冰川面积减少了1619.82 km2(-18.41%),储量亏损了104.78 km3(-12.16%),其中数量以< 1 km2的冰川减少最多,面积减少以< 5 km2的冰川最为严重。④ 冰川变化呈现明显的区域差异,变化速度最快的是天山东段博格达北坡流域,变化最慢的是中部的渭干河流域。初步分析认为夏季气温显著上升带来的消融大于年内降水带来的积累是天山冰川退缩的主要原因。

关键词: 天山冰川, 冰川变化, 冰川编目, 气候变化, 中国

Abstract:

Based on the glacier inventories and meteorological data, spatial-temporal variations of glaciers in Chinese Tianshan Mountains were analyzed systematically. The results show that: (1) 7934 glaciers with an area of 7179.77 km2 and volume of 756.48 km3 were identified in the study area. The number of glaciers below 1 km2 accounts for the majority part of glaciers in the Chinese Tianshan Mountains. In contrast, glaciers between 1 to 10 km2 and larger than 20 km2 have the largest proportions of the total glacier surface area. The glaciers in the study area are mainly distributed at elevations of 3800-4800 m. (2) In 10 watersheds, the Akesu River Basin contains the most of the glaciers with a surface area of 1721.75 km2, but the Yiwu River Basin has the least glaciers whose surface area is 56.03 km2. There is an obvious difference of glaciers in different regions. In the Akesu region, glacier resource is the most abundant, which accounts for 43.28% and 68.85% in total surface area and volume. In the Turpan region, glacier resource is the least, which accounts for only 0.23% and 0.07% of the total surface area and volume in this region. (3) In the past half century, the loss in glacier area and ice volume were 1619.85 km2 (-18.64%) and 104 km3 (21.63%), respectively. Glaciers smaller than 1.0 km2 constituted the main body of the decreased glacier number. Glaciers below 5 km2 experienced a significant recession. (4) The relative rates of area change for these glaciers were different for different drainage basins. The fastest change of glacier area occurred on the northern slope of the Bogda Basin and the lowest appeared in the Weigan River Basin. The main reason for glacier retreat in this region was that glacier melting caused by rising summer temperatures is greater than glacier mass supply by increased precipitation during the study period.

Key words: glaciers in Tianshan Mountains, glacier variation, glacier inventory, climate change, China