地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (8): 1408-1418.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201708006

• 产业发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

行动者网络理论与农村空间商品化——以北京市麻峪房村乡村旅游为例

王鹏飞1(), 王瑞璠2   

  1. 1. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院,北京 100048
    2. 北京广渠门中学,北京 100062
  • 收稿日期:2016-12-22 修回日期:2017-03-20 出版日期:2017-08-20 发布日期:2017-08-23
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王鹏飞(1964-), 男, 北京人, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110005996M), 国际地理学会可持续农村发展委员会委员, 主要研究方向为农业地理学。E-mail:pengfeitour@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271188)

Actor network theory and commodification in rural space: A case study of Mayufang village in Beijing

Pengfei WANG1(), Ruifan WANG2   

  1. 1. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
    2. Beijing Guangqumen Middle School, Beijing 100062, China
  • Received:2016-12-22 Revised:2017-03-20 Online:2017-08-20 Published:2017-08-23
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41271188

摘要:

乡村旅游作为农村空间商品化的表现形式之一,在增加农民收入、阻止农村衰退、振兴农村经济方面发挥着重要作用。为此本文以北京市昌平区麻峪房村的乡村旅游为例,借助行动者网络理论分析农村空间商品化的形成与演变,并讨论农户在此过程中的参与。麻峪房村在从农民生活空间转变为城市居民消费空间的过程中,形成了以区旅游局、乡旅游公司为关键行动者,并吸纳了多个人类和非人类行动者所构成的行动者网络。在网络形成的过程中农户参与乡村旅游的程度逐渐提高,由此推动了麻峪房村农村空间商品化的发展。麻峪房村演变为城市居民消费空间后,由于行动者网络发生变化使农村空间商品化发生变化,导致麻峪房村农村空间商品化程度降低。同时新的行动者网络中的各行动者的不对等性明显,各行动者之间存在很多异议,使该网络趋于僵化、丧失活力,不足以支撑麻峪房村乡村旅游继续发展。在麻峪房村农村空间商品化的形成过程中,农户的院落区位、年龄与原有工作等对农户参与乡村旅游的意愿产生不同的影响。当农村地区行动者网络中的关键行动者与行动者利益共通且紧密联系时,其空间商品化就得到强化,反之亦然。

关键词: 乡村旅游, 行动者网络理论, 农村空间商品化, 北京麻峪房村

Abstract:

Along with the development of facility agriculture, horticultural agriculture and leisure agriculture, nowadays, the functions of agricultural production in rural areas have been weakened but the functions of consumption have been increased in Beijing. This shows that the commodification of rural space in Beijing has been developed in recent years. Rural tourism, as one of the important forms of the commodification of rural space, has played an important role in increasing farmers' income, preventing rural decline and revitalizing rural economy. Therefore, this paper selects rural tourism as the representative of the commodification to examine the formation and evolution of spatial commodification of rural space in Mayufang village as well as to explore farmers' participation in this process based on the actor network theory. In the process of the transformation, the rural areas being the farmers' producing and living spaces have changed to the urban residents' leisure and consumption spaces in Mayufang village and formed a heterogeneous actor-network, in which Tourism Bureau of Changping District and Changling Travel Company and other human actors and non-human actors have played a focal role. Major actors used the policy and the financial support to enroll farmers and other actors by the top-down executive network. Along with development of promotion, training, supervision and infrastructure, some local farmers started to create the physical and non-physical environments for the urban residents' consumption activities. Thus more and more farmers have been engaged in rural tourism, and the commodification of rural spaces in Mayufang village has been developed. As Mayufang village became the consumption space to the urban residents, the commodification of rural space in Mayufang village started its transformation of actor network. However, with the quit of non-human actors, which is Duijiuyu Natural Beauty and reduction of incentives launched by the original major actors, the representative of market has become the focal actor in the new actor network. More and more farmers, who were against the common purpose of the actor network were excluded, quitted the former actor network, thus commodification in rural space in Mayufang village declined. In the process of the formation of commodification of rural space in Mayufang village, the farmers who had the advantages of location, age and profession have much stronger desire to be involved in rural tourism, unemployed farmers prefer to be involved in rural tourism than farmers who make a living on agriculture. The farmers who worked in township enterprises are more willing to participate in rural tourism than self-employed business persons; villagers employed in the government units have less possibility to take part in rural tourism. While commodification of rural space in Mayufang village has declined, farmers began to transfer the labor force to other professions from rural tourism. When interests of major actors are commonly and inextricably linked with actors in actor network in rural areas, its commodification in rural space is strengthened, and vice versa.

Key words: rural tourism, actor-network theory, commodification in rural space, Mayufang village in Beijing