地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (7): 1277-1289.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201707012

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生态系统服务供给和需求研究进展

马琳1,2,3, 刘浩4, 彭建3, 吴健生2,3()   

  1. 1. 山东大学县域发展研究院,青岛 266200
    2. 北京大学城市规划与设计学院 城市人居环境科学与技术重点实验室,深圳 518055
    3. 北京大学城市与环境学院地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871
    4. 北京大学政府管理学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-15 修回日期:2017-03-22 出版日期:2017-08-07 发布日期:2017-08-08
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:马琳(1988-), 女, 河北沧州人, 博士, 助理研究员, 中国地理学会会员(S110010111M), 研究方向为土地利用、城市与区域规划。E-mail: linma2007@hotmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41330747)

A review of ecosystem services supply and demand

Lin MA1,2,3, Hao LIU4, Jian PENG3, Jiansheng WU2,3()   

  1. 1. Institute for Studies in County Development, Shandong University, Qingdao 266200, Shandong, China
    2. Key Laboratory for Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Urban Planning and Design,Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China
    3. Laboratory for Earth Surface Process, Ministry of Education, College of Urban and Environment Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    4. School of Government, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2016-07-15 Revised:2017-03-22 Online:2017-08-07 Published:2017-08-08
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41330747

摘要:

生态系统为人类供给产品与服务,人类对其产品与服务形成需求和消费,供需两者共同构成生态系统服务从自然生态系统流向人类社会系统的动态过程。对生态系统服务的供给和需求进行识别、度量、空间化及均衡分析是生态系统服务研究的重要组成部分,有助于生态系统有效管理以及自然资源合理配置,为生态系统服务付费和生态补偿提供理论支撑。本文基于国内外理论和案例研究成果,首先梳理生态系统服务供给和需求的含义,其次总结和对比从供需空间特征角度对生态系统服务的分类,并归纳生态系统供给和需求的空间化方法,最后从实际供给和潜在供给、实现需求和总量需求、供需数量和空间关系3个方面探讨生态系统服务供需均衡分析框架。

关键词: 实际供给, 潜在供给, 实现需求, 总量需求, 生态系统服务流, ARIES

Abstract:

Natural ecosystems supply tangible products and intangible services, which are demanded and consumed by human beings. Therefore, supply and demand make up the dynamic process of ecosystem services flowing from natural ecosystems to human society. The process of identifying, measuring, mapping and conducting an equilibrium analysis of the supply and demand of ecosystem services is beneficial for the effective management of natural ecosystems and optimal allocation of natural resources. Moreover, this can provide theoretical support to payments for environmental services and ecological compensation, thus promoting ecological security and sustainable development. Although the study of ecosystem services supply and demand is important, related studies are limited in China and are mainly focused on Europe and North America. Based on the theory and case studies conducted in China and other countries, this paper first presented the definition of ecosystem services supply and demand, including actual supply, potential supply, satisfied demand, and total demand. Second, the classifications of ecosystem services were compared based on their spatial characteristics. Third, the methods of mapping ecosystem services supply and demand were divided as follows: (1) land use estimation, which needs simple operation and limited data, may cause errors due to the loss of internal heterogeneity and boundary effects; (2) ecological process simulation is mostly applied in water-related ecosystem services, showing detailed and reliable results with multi-calculation; (3) spatial data superposition, which is an ideal method for mapping ecosystem services with complete spatial data sets; (4) expert knowledge, where the mapping of ecosystem services supply and demand is decided by a group of experts or is based on the previous related findings; however, the mapping principle followed in a local study may not be applicable to studies conducted at other places; and (5) the use of integrated models InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs), which is suitable for supply analysis, and ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), maps service flow from natural ecosystems to human beings. Finally, we discussed the equilibrium analysis framework for ecosystem services supply and demand from three angles: actual supply and potential supply, satisfied demand and total demand, and the spatial and quantitative relation between supply and demand.

Key words: actual supply, potential supply, satisfied demand, total demand, ecosystem services flow, ARIES