地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (7): 1173-1183.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201707004

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冰湖的界定与分类体系——面向冰湖编目和冰湖灾害研究

姚晓军1(), 刘时银2,3, 韩磊4, 孙美平1,2   

  1. 1. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院,兰州 730070
    2. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院 冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室,兰州 730000
    3. 云南大学国际河流与生态安全研究院,昆明 650091
    4. 四川省地质调查院,成都 610081
  • 收稿日期:2016-12-19 修回日期:2017-04-02 出版日期:2017-08-07 发布日期:2017-08-07
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:姚晓军(1980-), 男, 山西夏县人, 博士, 副教授, 研究方向为地理信息技术与冰冻圈变化。E-mail: xj_yao@nwnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41261016, 41561016)中国科学院冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室开放基金项目(SKLCS-OP-2016-10)西北师范大学青年教师科研能力提升计划项目(NWNU-LKQN-14-4)中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD2016034206)

Definition and classification systems of glacial lake for inventory and hazards study

Xiaojun YAO1(), Shiyin LIU2,3, Lei HAN4, Meiping SUN1,2   

  1. 1. College of Geography and Environment Sciences, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Cryosphere Sciences, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
    3. Institute of International Rivers and Eco-Security, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China
    4. Geological Survey Institute of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610081, China
  • Received:2016-12-19 Revised:2017-04-02 Published:2017-08-07 Online:2017-08-07
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41261016, No.41561016 Opening Foundation Projection of State Key Laboratory of Cryosphere Sciences, CAS, No. SKLCS-OP-2016-10 Youth Scholar Scientific Capability Promoting Project of Northwest Normal University, No.NWNU-LKQN-14-4 Geological Survey Project of China Geological Survey, No.DD2016034206]

摘要:

冰川湖泊(简称冰湖)不仅是高山区重要的水资源,而且是许多冰川灾害的孕育者和发源地,在冰冻圈科学、气候变化和山地灾害研究中具有重要地位。本文系统讨论了现有冰湖定义及存在的问题,从冰湖编目和冰湖灾害研究视角提出冰湖的定义,指出现有冰湖研究主要是基于“以现代冰川融水为主要补给源或在冰碛垄洼地内积水形成的天然水体”这一冰湖定义的。同时,从冰湖形成机理、地貌形态和空间分布位置将冰湖划分为冰川侵蚀湖(冰斗湖、冰川槽谷湖和其他冰川侵蚀湖)、冰碛阻塞湖(终碛阻塞湖、侧碛阻塞湖、冰碛垄热融湖)、冰川阻塞湖(冰川前进阻塞湖和其他冰川阻塞湖)、冰面湖、冰下(内)湖和其他冰川湖6大类及8个亚类,并给出各冰湖类型相应的遥感判识指标和定量指标,以期建立具有普适性和可操作性的冰湖分类体系。

关键词: 冰湖, 冰川, 定义, 分类, 编目, 灾害

Abstract:

Glacial lakes not only provide the important refresh water resources in alpine region, but also act as a trigger of many glacial hazards such as glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) and debris flow. Hence glacial lakes play an important role in the research related with cryosphere, climate change and alpine hazards. In this paper, the issues of glacial lakes were systematically discussed. Then from the view of glacial lake inventory and glacial lake hazards study, the glacial lake was defined as natural water supplied mainly by modern glacier melting water or formed in glacier moraine's depression. Furthermore, a complete classification system of glacial lakes was proposed based on its formation mechanism, topographic feature and geographical position. Glacial lakes were classified into 6 classes and 8 subclasses, i.e., glacial erosion lake (including cirque lake, glacial valley lake and other glacial erosion lake), moraine-dammed lake (including end moraine-dammed lake, lateral moraine-dammed lake and moraine thaw lake), ice-blocked lake (including advancing glacier-blocked lake and other glacier-blocked lake), supraglacial lake, subglacial lake and other glacial lakes. Meanwhile, some corresponding features presented by remote sensing images and quantitative indices for identifying different glacial lake types were proposed so as to build a universal and operational classification system of glacial lakes.

Key words: glacial lake, glacier, definition, classification, inventory, hazard