地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (7): 1151-1162.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201707002

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1960-2015年中国绿洲胡杨生长季对全球变暖的时空响应及原因

张文霞, 刘普幸, 冯青荣, 汪天广, 王天强   

  1. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院,兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-28 修回日期:2017-03-21 出版日期:2017-08-07 发布日期:2017-08-08
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张文霞(1987-), 女, 甘肃武山人, 硕士, 研究方向为干旱区域环境与绿洲建设。E-mail: zwxjiayou@sina.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40961035)甘肃省科技计划基金项目(0803RJZA094) [Foundation: National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40961035

Spatial and temporal response and its causes of the growing season of Populus Euphratica to global warming in China's oases during 1960-2015

Wenxia ZHANG, Puxing LIU, Qingrong FENG, Tianguang WANG, Tianqiang WANG   

  1. College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
  • Received:2016-11-28 Revised:2017-03-21 Online:2017-08-07 Published:2017-08-08
  • Supported by:
    The Science Technology and Project of Gansu Province, No.0803RJZA094]

摘要:

基于中国绿洲胡杨(Populus euphratica Oliv.)分布区48个地面气象站1960-2015年逐日平均气温数据,采用线性趋势法、Mann-Kendall检验、ArcGIS反距离加权插值法(IDW)、Morlet小波功率谱和相关分析等方法,分析了中国绿洲胡杨年生长季的起止日及生长期长短对气候变暖的时空响应特征及原因。结果表明:近56年来,中国绿洲胡杨年生长季具有起始日提前、终止日推迟、生长期延长的变化趋势,变化倾向率分别为-1.34 d/10a、1.33 d/10a、2.66 d/10a(α ≥ 0.001);空间差异十分显著,呈现出由西南向东北起始日越迟,终止日越早,生长期越短的变化规律。胡杨生长季起止日及生长期分别在2001年、1989年和1996年发生突变,且分别存在3.56~7.14 a不等的短周期,与厄尔尼诺2~7 a的周期一致,起始日3.56 a和4.28 a的周期与大气环流2~4 a的周期吻合。原因分析表明亚洲极涡面积指数、青藏高原指数、西风指数和年均二氧化碳排放量是影响胡杨生长季变化的主要因素;此外,纬度对胡杨生长季的影响要明显大于海拔高度,且起始日受纬度和海拔高度的影响比终止日更加显著;胡杨生长季起止日和生长期分别与对应月份的平均气温呈显著的高相关性,且3月均温每升高1 ℃,起始日提前2.21 d,10月均温每升高1 ℃,终止日推迟2.76 d,3-10月均温每升高1 ℃,生长期延长7.78 d,表明胡杨生长季的变化对全球增暖的区域响应十分敏感。

关键词: 胡杨, 年生长季, 全球变暖, 时空响应, 中国绿洲

Abstract:

Based on the daily average temperature of 48 meteorological stations in Chinese oases of the distribution area of Populus euphratica, we analyzed spatio-temporal response of the onset and upset date of P. euphratica, and the dates of growing season to climate change, with the aid of methods including a multi-year trend line, Mann-Kendall mutation test, IDW under the ArcGIS software, Morlet wavelet power spectrum, and correlation analysis. The results indicate that in the past 56 years, the onset date of the growing season has advanced and the upset date has postponed; the dates of the growing period have gradually prolonged, with the trend rates being -1.34 d/10a, 1.33 d/10a, 2.66 d/10a (α≥ 0.001), respectively. The spatial difference is extremely significant, which presents the following law: from the southwest to the northeast in Chinese oases, the onset date has postponed, the upset date advanced, and the growing period shortened. The mutation point of the onset and upset dates and growing period is observed in 2001, 1989, and 1996, respectively, and the upset date is more sensitive to climate warming. The cycles of the growing season of P. euphratica are 3.56-7.14 years, which is consistent with the cycle of the El Nino event, and the onset date cycles of 3.56 years and 4.28 years are consistent with that of atmospheric circulation. Cause analysis shows that the Asian polar vortex area index, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau index, Westerly Circulation index, and the carbon dioxide emissions are the main reasons for the change of the growing season for P. euphratica, and consistent with the results of the periodic analysis. In addition, the influence of latitude in the growing season is significantly larger than that of altitude, while the onset date is more significant than the upset date in terms of latitude and altitude. Additionally, the onset and upset dates and growing period are significantly correlated with the average temperature of corresponding month, with the correlation coefficients being -0.875, 0.770, and 0.897, respectively (α≥ 0.001). Specifically, if the March average temperature increases by 1 ℃, the onset date will occur about 2.21 days earlier; if the October average temperature increases by 1 ℃, the upset date will delay for 2.76 days; if the average temperature of March to October increases by 1 ℃, the growing period will prolong for 7.78 days. This indicates that the change of P. euphratica in the growing season has a sensitive response to regional warming. This study is of great theoretical significance in understanding the response of Chinese vegetation to climate warming and ecological restoration.

Key words: P. euphratica, annual growing season, global warming, response, Chinese oases