地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (5): 875-891.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201705009

• 土地利用与环境变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

亚洲中部干旱区丝绸之路沿线环境演化与东西方文化交流

安成邦(), 王伟, 段阜涛, 黄伟, 陈发虎()   

  1. 兰州大学西部环境教育部重点实验室 兰州大学资源环境学院,兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-19 修回日期:2017-02-28 出版日期:2017-05-20 发布日期:2017-07-13
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:安成邦(1970-), 男, 甘肃通渭人, 博士, 教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110005510M), 主要研究方向为环境变化、环境考古。E-mail: cban@lzu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41130102, 41671189);中国科学院国际合作局对外合作重点项目(131C11KYSB 20160061)

Environmental changes and cultural exchange between East and West along the Silk Road in arid Central Asia

Chengbang AN(), Wei WANG, Futao DUAN, Wei HUANG, Fahu CHEN()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education), College ofEarth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2016-10-19 Revised:2017-02-28 Online:2017-05-20 Published:2017-07-13
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41130102, No.41671189;Key Project of Bureau of International Co-operation Chinese Academy of Science, No.131C11KYSB20160061

摘要:

基于环境记录、考古发现,以及同位素资料,对亚洲中部干旱区丝绸之路沿线的全新世以来的环境变化和东西方文化交流进行了梳理。结果表明,研究区独特的地理环境和环境变化过程,深刻地影响着文化的发展和传播。河西走廊受季风影响,表现出季风—西风过渡带干湿变化的模式,晚全新世气候趋向干旱;从新疆到中亚的丝绸之路沿线的环境变化比较一致:在早全新世(BC 6000以前)主要为干旱环境,植被以荒漠类型占优势;中晚全新世,湿润程度增加,草原植被扩展。新疆和中亚全新世中晚期较为湿润的环境为东西文化交流提供了较适宜的环境基础。得益于环境条件的改善,东西方文化交流融合的进程在BC 2000以后明显加速。在BC 2500-2000期间,东西方农业文化在丝绸之路沿线接触融合,是史前丝绸之路的首次贯通;在BC 2000-1000期间,丝绸之路沿线绿洲地带形成了以小麦—/大麦—粟黍—畜牧为特征的混合型经济特征,并扩散到欧亚草原带,和周围的畜牧业形成鲜明的对照,并持续到历史时期。这种空间分异,是地理环境和东西方文化交流共同作用的结果。在史前时期,东西方农业的相向传播和融合,基本沿着山前地带的绿洲蛙跳式前进。到了历史时期,政治版图的变化是影响丝绸之路的首要因素,但环境变化仍然是不可忽略的因素。

关键词: 亚洲中部干旱区, 丝绸之路, 环境变化, 小麦, 粟黍, 东西文化交流

Abstract:

Based on environmental records, archaeological findings, and isotopic data, the environmental changes and cultural exchange between East and West along the Silk Road in arid Central Asia during the Holocene have been studied. The results show that the cultural exchange is definitely influenced by geographic setting and environmental changes. Hexi Corridor is located at the marginal area of monsoonal Asia, characterized by monsoon-westerly transitional model. From Xinjiang to Central Asia, the environmental change demonstrated uniform trends during the Holocene: the early Holocene witnessed dry environment conditions and desert vegetation, while during the mid and late Holocene, steppe vegetation expanded when moisture increased. The cultural exchange between East and West along the Silk Road took advantage of moisture conditions during the mid to late Holocene. Benefited from the improvement of environmental conditions, the cultural exchange between East and West accelerated after 2000 BC. During 2500-2000 BC, Eastern and Western agriculture met and integrated along the Silk Road, representing the beginning of prehistoric "Silk Road" along the Tianshan Mountains. Furthermore, during 2000-1000 BC, a mixed economy characterized by wheat/barley-millet-husbandry appeared in the oases along the Silk Road, and expanded to the Eurasia steppe after 1500BC, being a sharp contrast to the surrounding animal husbandry and continuing to the historic periods. Such spatial differentiation is the result of integrated geographic setting and cultural exchange between East and West. During the prehistoric period, Eastern and Western agriculture oppositely spread along the oases in a leapfrogging forward way. While during the historic periods, political factors were the primary controlling upon the Silk Road, but environmental change was still a factor that cannot be ignored.

Key words: arid Central Asia, Silk Road, environmental change, wheat, millet, cultural exchange