地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (4): 711-722.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201704012

• 历史地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

鸿沟引水口与渠首段经流考辩

肖冉1,2(), 何凡能1(), 刘浩龙1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-30 修回日期:2017-01-08 出版日期:2017-04-20 发布日期:2017-05-09
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:肖冉(1991-), 女, 河南信阳人, 硕士生, 主要从事历史地理与环境变迁研究。E-mail: beilinxiaoran@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    科技基础性工作专项项目(2014FY210900);国家自然科学基金项目(41271227)

Research on location changes of the heads and diversionports of the Honggou Canal

Ran XIAO1,2(), Fanneng HE1(), Haolong LIU1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2016-10-30 Revised:2017-01-08 Online:2017-04-20 Published:2017-05-09
  • Supported by:
    The Special Program for Basic Work of the Ministry of Science and Technology, China, No.2014FY210900;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41271227

摘要:

鸿沟是先秦至魏晋时期中原地区一条重要的人工运河,对古代北方地区水运交通有着极其深远的影响。但其引水口和渠首段经流的问题,至今仍存歧见。本文在实地考察的基础上,通过对史料及考古资料的系统梳理与分析,深入探讨了战国至魏晋时期鸿沟引水口与渠首段经流的变迁过程,结果表明:① 战国时期,魏国在荥阳一带的实际控制线当在魏长城以西,包括当时的卷邑、衍邑等,魏惠王初开鸿沟运河时,其渠首段是利用流经魏国境内的济隧河道,而不是利用流经韩国境内的荥渎河道;② 秦兼并六国过程中,消除了国界的障碍,并在广武山设置了敖仓,为水运转输方便,遂将引水渠道西移至距敖仓较近的荥渎河道,并在荥口设置水门,以控制航运;③ 东汉后期,荥渎被黄河泥沙侵淤,鸿沟渠首段再次西迁至有柳泉、广武涧等清澈溪水注入的石门水河道,并一直沿用至隋开通济渠。

关键词: 鸿沟运河, 引水口, 渠首段, 历史变迁, 荥阳地区, 战国至魏晋

Abstract:

Honggou canal is an important artificial river in the Central Plains from the Pre-Qin to the Wei-Jin Dynastic Period, which exerted a profound influence on the shipping traffic in ancient China. However, the problems about Honggou's diversion ports and canal heads have remained unsolved yet. Here, based on fieldworks, in combination with systematic analysis of the historical documents and archaeological evidence, we investigated the water diversion ports and canal heads during the period from the Warring States to the Wei-Jin Dynasties. The results are as follows: (1) In the Warring States Period, the actual control area by the Wei State in Xingyang was located west of the Wei Great Wall, including Juanxian county and Yanxian county. During that period, because Jisui and Xingdu were controlled by the Wei and Han states, respectively, Emperor Wei Hui used the former rather than the latter as the canal head at the beginning of the Honggou canal project; (2) In the process of unification of the other six states by Qin State, the border barrier was eliminated and Ao granary was built in the Guangwu Mountain. Meanwhile, for the convenience of water transportation, the canal head was transferred to Xingdu, and a water gate was built to control the shipping traffic; (3) In the late Eastern Han Dynasty, Xingdu was silted by the deposits of the Yellow River. As a result, Honggou canal head was transferred westward to the Shimen stream, due to the existence of several tributaries such as Liu and Guangwu streams which flowed into it. The last canal head had been used until Tongji canal was dug in the Sui Dynasty.

Key words: Honggou canal, diversion port, canal head, historical changes, Xingyang, the Warring States Period to the Wei-Jin Dynasties