地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (4): 646-656.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201704007

• 城镇化研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市三维景观格局时空分异特征研究——以大连市中山区为例

杨俊1,2(), 国安东1, 席建超2, 葛全胜2, 李雪铭1   

  1. 1. 辽宁师范大学 自然地理与空间信息科学辽宁省重点实验室,大连 116029
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2016-09-12 修回日期:2016-12-05 出版日期:2017-04-20 发布日期:2017-05-09
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杨俊(1978-), 男, 湖北孝昌人, 博士后, 副教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110003954M), 主要从事城市化、城市人居环境与地理信息系统应用。E-mail: yangjun@lnnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471140);辽宁省高等学校杰出青年学者成长计划(LJQ2015058)

Spatial-temporal differentiation of three-dimensional urban landscape pattern: A case study of Zhongshan District in Dalian

Jun YANG1,2(), Andong GUO1, Jianchao XI2, Quansheng GE2, Xueming LI1   

  1. 1. Liaoning Key Laboratory of Physical Geography and Geomatics, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, Liaoning, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute ofGeographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2016-09-12 Revised:2016-12-05 Online:2017-04-20 Published:2017-05-09
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41471140;Outstanding Youth Program of Liaoning Province, No.LJQ2015058

摘要:

以大连市中山区2003年、2013年城市三维建筑数据为基础,选取三维景观指标,运用ArcGIS空间分析方法从多个角度来研究城市10年间建筑景观格局时空分异特征。结果表明:① 大连市中山区建筑加权平均高度和体积分别增加7.87 m、277.25×104 m3;地块覆盖率减少了16.27%,容积率增加了20.67%,反映出城市水平和垂直空间分别呈收缩、扩展的态势。② 中山区城市天际线起伏差异明显,东—西方向呈逐渐增高的趋势,南—北方向呈“北部高峰,中部和南部平缓”格局。城市高层建筑主要集中于城市的西北部,且2013年建筑最高点中心裕景比2003年宏进大厦高140 m。③ 建筑覆盖率和容积率在空间分布上差异明显,低和极低覆盖率与容积率地块所占比例大,分别增加了8.3%、-4.33%;高和极高覆盖率与容积率地块所占比例少,且集中分布在青泥洼桥和人民路街道。④ 2003年超高层建筑在空间分布上呈“聚集—离散”状态,即在距离660 m尺度范围内呈聚集状态,大于660 m时呈离散分布,其他三种建筑类型在空间上都呈一定的聚集分布状态;2013年4种不同类型建筑在空间分布上都呈现一定的聚集分布状态,聚集程度为:超高层建筑>低层建筑>多层建筑>高层建筑。

关键词: 三维景观指标, 容积率, 多距离空间聚类分析, 空间格局, 中山区

Abstract:

Based on three-dimensional urban building data of 2003 and 2013 in Zhongshan District of Dalian, this paper selects the three-dimensional landscape index, and uses ArcGIS spatial analysis method to study the spatial and temporal differentiation of urban architectural landscape pattern in 10 years. The results showed that: (1) The weighted average height and volume of buildings in Zhongshan District increased by 7.87 m and 277.25×104 m3, respectively. The block coverage ratio decreased by 16.27% and the floor area ratio increased by 20.67%, reflecting the contraction and expansion of urban horizontal and vertical space respectively. (2) The fluctuation of urban skyline in Zhongshan District is obvious. The east-west direction is gradually increasing, and the south-north direction is "A peak in the north, while a gentle pattern in the middle and the south". Urban high-rise buildings are mainly concentrated in the northwest of the city, and Zhongxinyujing Building, the highest point in 2013, is 140 m higher than Hongjin Building in 2003. (3) There exist significant spatial differences of building coverage and floor area ratio. Low and very low land coverage rate and floor area ratio of large proportion increased by 8.3% and -4.33%; high and very high coverage and floor area ratio accounted for a small proportion, which was concentrated in the Qingniwaqiao Street and Renminlu Street. (4) The spatial distribution of the ultra-tall buildings was in an aggregated-discrete state in 2003, that is, aggregated in the range of 660 m, and discrete distributed over 660 m, and the other three types of buildings have a certain aggregation in space. In terms of spatial distribution, the four types of buildings was in a certain aggregation state in 2013, and the degree of aggregation was ultra-tall buildings > low-rise buildings > multistory buildings > high-rise buildings.

Key words: three-dimensional landscape index, floor area ratio, multi-distance spatial cluster analysis, spatial pattern, Zhongshan District of Dalian