地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (4): 618-632.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201704005

• 城镇化研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

流动商贩的空间分布特征及与正规商业的分布关系——基于距离测度方法的数量研究

张延吉1(), 张磊2(), 吴凌燕3   

  1. 1. 福州大学建筑学院城乡规划系,福州 350116
    2. 中国人民大学城市规划与管理系,北京 100872
    3. 福建省城乡规划设计研究院,福州 350003
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-08 修回日期:2017-02-12 出版日期:2017-04-20 发布日期:2017-05-09
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张延吉(1989-), 男, 上海人, 博士, 讲师, 研究方向为城市空间结构与非正规经济。E-mail: chairman7up@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    中国人民大学科学研究基金(中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金)项目 (2016030072)

Spatial distribution of street vending and its spatial relationship with formal commerce: Quantitative research using distance-based methods

Yanji ZHANG1(), Lei ZHANG2(), Lingyan WU3   

  1. 1. Department of Urban and Rural Planning, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China
    2. Department of Urban Planning and Management, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
    3. Fujian Urban and Rural Planning Design Institute, Fuzhou 350003, China
  • Received:2016-01-08 Revised:2017-02-12 Online:2017-04-20 Published:2017-05-09
  • Supported by:
    The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the Research Funds of Renmin University of China, No.2016030072

摘要:

有关非正规经济的空间分布特征始终缺乏宏观维度的定量研究。本文利用数字化城市管理系统中的流动商贩数据和工商局登记的正规商业数据,通过DO指数和M函数,分别探究流动商贩的空间特征及其与正规商业的分布关系。研究发现:① 绝大多数类型的流动商贩及其占地面积具有显著集聚的空间格局;其中,与居民需求较为密切的商贩类型,集聚程度相对较低。② 相较于正规商业,流动商贩在极小的空间尺度上更为强烈地集聚分布;但随着尺度扩大,集聚程度呈快速衰减态势。③ 经营内容相近的流动商贩与正规商业之间表现出显著的互斥关系,而非共栖关系;且两者的互斥程度在较小的空间尺度上尤为强烈。由此,本研究证明设立摊贩疏导区具有可行性和必要性,并就设置的类型及原则提出了初步建议。

关键词: 非正规经济, 流动商贩, 空间分布, DO指数, M函数

Abstract:

Although informal economy has become important urban landscape in contemporary China, there are fewer quantitative studies on its spatial structure from the perspective of macroscopic scale. Therefore, the feasibility and necessity of vending zones are still full of controversy. To fill in this research gap, the thesis used point data of street vendors and formal commerce in 2010, which respectively came from digital urban municipal management system and industrial and commercial bureau registration system of Chaoyang District in Beijing. Via DO Index and M Function, this research mainly probed into the spatial structure of street vending and its spatial relationship with formal commerce separately. According to empirical analysis, firstly, this paper found that most vending types and their occupied areas presented a pattern of significant agglomeration. Furthermore, the vending type which had close relationship with residents' demand showed less agglomeration degree. Secondly, compared with the spatial structure of formal commerce, street vending agglomerated more intensely in a tiny scale. Concretely, street vendors, as a whole, reached the peak extent of agglomeration at only approximately 250 to 300 meters. However, the extent of their agglomeration declined dramatically when spatial scale magnified. Thirdly, street vending and formal commerce which provided similar commodity or service had not shown significant co-located spatial relationship, but there existed evident co-dispersion with each other. What's more, the extent of co-dispersion would be stronger in a smaller spatial scale. In conclusion, although street vending presented strong mobility, it had a stable spatial pattern. Thus this research demonstrated the feasibility and necessity of setting inclusive vending zones, and proposed elementary policy suggestion of its principle and types. For example, the government could introduce flexible and fixed vending zones in order to satisfy different demands of various vendors. Furthermore, the area need not be enlarged and would give preference to the area with limited formal commerce supply.

Key words: informal economy, street vending, spatial distribution, DO index, M function