地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (2): 303-314.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201702010

• 土地利用与环境变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

《国际水道非航行使用法公约》被认可的区域差异性

余世维1,2(), 冯彦1,2(), 王文玲1,2   

  1. 1. 云南大学亚洲国际河流中心,昆明 650091
    2. 云南省国际河流与跨境生态安全重点实验室,昆明 650091
  • 收稿日期:2016-09-10 修回日期:2016-11-22 出版日期:2017-02-15 发布日期:2017-04-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:余世维(1991-), 男, 河南信阳人, 硕士生, 从事国际河流水资源合作研究。E-mail: shiweiyugeo@foxmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFA0601601);国家自然科学基金重点项目(U1202232);国家社会科学基金重点项目(11AZD04)

Differences among the parties of "Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses"

Shiwei YU1,2(), Yan FENG1,2(), Wenling WANG1,2   

  1. 1. Asian International Rivers’ Center, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China
    2. Yunnan Key Lab of International Rivers and Transboundary Eco-security, Kunming 650091, China
  • Received:2016-09-10 Revised:2016-11-22 Online:2017-02-15 Published:2017-04-28
  • Supported by:
    National Key Technologies R&D Program, No.2016YFA0601601;Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.U1202232;Key Project of National Social Science Foundation of China, No.11AZD04

摘要:

《国际水道非航行使用法公约》是第一个生效、旨在实现跨境水资源公平合理利用的全球公约,但《公约》原则与条款争议造成缔约国数量有限,综合影响力受到削减。利用《全球跨境流域》、《国际淡水条约数据库》、《世界环境协定》等数据库信息等,确定《公约》缔约国的国际河流地理位置,结合各缔约国水资源及利用现状、跨境水资源分布及区域合作开发状况、《公约》原则和争议条款等,分析、判断缔约国的区域及目标差异特征,结果表明:① 缔约国仅分布于欧洲、亚洲和非洲3个地区36国家,《公约》被认可程度低、影响力有限;② 《公约》在平衡上下游权利与义务中对下游国谋求水开发利益更为有利,下游国缔约意愿更强、对其认可度最高;《公约》对中游、边界及上下游均衡及支流地区的流域国有制衡作用,影响着流域国的缔约愿意;③ 缺水状况和位居下游、国际河流地位重要及对跨境水资源的依赖驱使相关国家不断寻求增强对跨境水资源管控能力的途径,缔结《公约》成为一项重要选择;④ 区域性水法的发展与实践是流域国缔结《公约》的基础,绝大多数国家的缔约意愿多源于对水资源合作开发实践,而流域下游及中游国家则源于跨境水资源合作机制建设和水资源合作开发两个方面的经验。

关键词: 国际水道非航行使用法公约, 缔约国, 差异, 国际河流, 跨境水资源

Abstract:

In order to realize equitable and reasonable utilization of transboundary water, the "Convention of the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses" is the first global legal framework which took more than 40 years to discuss, design, sign and approve, and finally entered into force in 2014. Because the Convention has few signatories, the power of the Convention will be affected because some rules are under dispute. In this paper, the locations of each of the Convention's parties in related international rivers were identified based on the maps of the "Global Transbounary Rivers Basin" published by UNEP in 2016. Combined with available water volumes and withdrawals, the importance of related international rivers and regional cooperation on transboundary water of the parties with their locations on the international rivers, the regional, locational and objective differences among the parties to approve the Convention were analyzed and discovered. Some major conclusions are as follows. (1) Up until now, only 36 states are parties to the Convention, which are located in Asia, Africa and Europe, meaning that the Convention will have limited influence. (2) When the Convention balances the rights and the obligations among the riparian states, it is more beneficial for the downstream states to seek water benefits, so that the downstream states have the strongest motivation to sign and approve the Convention, and the Convention's counterbalance affects the motives of the states on the middle reaches, the frontiers or the tributaries. (3) Under the stress of water shortages and the importance of transboundary waters, the riparian states are seeking ways to strengthen the controlling power on its transboundary waters, and ratifying the Convention is one option. (4) The riparian states' experiences with transboundary water cooperation are the basis to be a party to the Convention, as most of the parties gained experience mainly from water project cooperation, and downstream and midstream parties' experiences are from general framework agreements and water projects cooperation.

Key words: Convention of the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses, the Convention's parties, differences, international river, transboundary water