地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (1): 148-160.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201701012

• 地理探测器原理与应用 • 上一篇    下一篇

胡焕庸线两侧人口的空间分异性及其变化

李佳洺1(), 陆大道1,2, 徐成东3, 李扬4, 陈明星1,2()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    4. 中国科学院中国现代化研究中心,北京 100190
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-28 修回日期:2016-01-08 出版日期:2017-01-20 发布日期:2017-03-23
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李佳洺(1984-), 男, 山西晋城人, 博士, 助理研究员, 主要研究方向为经济地理与区域发展。E-mail: lijm.12b@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671125, 41530634, 41230632, 41601121);中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所秉维优秀青年人才基金(2015RC202)

Spatial heterogeneity and its changes of population on the two sides of Hu Line

Jiaming LI1(), Dadao LU1,2, Chengdong XU1, Yang LI3, Mingxing CHEN1,2()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environment Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4. China Center for Modernization Research, CAS, Beijing 100190, China
  • Received:2016-10-28 Revised:2016-01-08 Online:2017-01-20 Published:2017-03-23
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41671125, No.41530634, No.41230632, No.41601121;Programme of Bingwei Excellent Young Scientists of the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, No.2015RC202

摘要:

胡焕庸线作为人地关系的重要地理大发现之一,揭示了中国人口分布东密西疏的重要特征,是人文与经济地理学对社会的重要贡献之一。本文采用地理探测器等定量方法,以人口普查数据为基础,对胡焕庸线两侧人口分布的分异性特征进行了深入讨论,并尝试解释中国人口分布特征变化的原因及其机制。结果表明:① 胡焕庸线作为中国最重要的人口分界线仍基本保持稳定,但从空间统计学分异特征来看该分界线仍可进一步优化调整;② 胡焕庸线两侧内部人口集聚模式发生着明显变化,东南半壁人口分布由改革开放之前和初期的相对均衡状态,转变为以长三角、珠三角等少数区域为中心的集聚模式;而西北半壁人口分布的集聚程度则趋于下降;③ 从人口空间分布的影响因素看,尽管总体上,经济发展类因素对于人口空间分布影响不断增强,但三大阶梯等自然地理本底条件依然对中国人口分布有着重要影响。

关键词: 胡焕庸线, 人口分布, 空间分异性, 集聚, 扩散, 地理探测器

Abstract:

Hu Line uncovers one of China's most important characteristics of population paper distribution: East is dense, while west is sparse. Different from most previous research, this paper examined the differentiation and changes of population distribution on both sides of Hu Line from a perspective of spatial stratified heterogeneity instead. Geodetector was employed based on the spatial database of China's census data of 1953, 1982, 1990, 2000 and 2010 to reconfirm spatial position of Hu Line and analyzed changes of spatial stratified heterogeneity of population between southeast and northwest sides of Hu Line in different periods. Changes of population distribution since the founding of New China were found and the reasons for these changes were discussed. Major findings include: (1) From the spatial stratified heterogeneity perspective, Hu Line could be improved and optimized, at least, in some periods. Although the ratio of total population on both sides of Hu Line has roughly been kept at 94:6 since 1953, spatial stratified heterogeneity of population between the two sides (the southeastern side: the northwestern side) increased when Hu Line moves to south slightly in 1953, 2000 and 2010, which means population distribution was more homogeneous within either southeastern or northwestern region and heterogeneity was more remarkable between the two regions. (2) Heterogeneity decreased gradually since the reform and opening up. We found characteristics of population distribution converged on the two sides, especially since the 1990s when convergence between the two sides became apparent. This finding is significantly different from the conclusion of "remain unchanged" from most literatures. The reasons why heterogeneity reduced were: pattern of population distribution on the southeastern side changed from relatively even distribution among cities before 1990 to agglomeration in a few huge cities after 2000, while the degree of spatial agglomeration of population decreased slightly after the reform on the northwestern side. These changes have been confirmed by the analysis from cumulative distribution function and Gini coefficient. (3) On the whole, the effect of economic factors on population distribution has become more and more important, while the effect of natural environment and institution reduced. Combined effect from economic development, natural environment and institution resulted in two opposite directions of changes of population spatial distribution on the two sides. It should be emphasized that although general effect of natural environment has decreased, some natural factors, such as Three Gradient Terrains, still have significantly influence on population distribution in China.

Key words: Hu-Line, population distribution, spatial heterogeneity, agglomeration, dispersion, Geodetector