地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (12): 2212-2232.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201612011

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基于从业者的旅游历史街区商业空间发展特征及机理——扬州“双东”案例

徐小波1,2,3(), 吴必虎4, 刘滨谊2, 陈钢华5   

  1. 1. 上海师范大学旅游学院,上海 200234
    2. 同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,上海 200092
    3. 舟山市旅游委员会,浙江 舟山 316021
    4. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
    5. 中山大学旅游学院,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-28 修回日期:2016-06-08 出版日期:2016-12-25 发布日期:2016-12-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:徐小波(1984-), 男, 江苏扬中人, 博士, 讲师, 中国地理学会会员(S110010781M), 主要从事人文地理与旅游规划研究。E-mail: tourxxb@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(51678417, 41500154);国家社会科学基金项目(14CGL023)

The development of commercial spaces in tourist historic districts: The case of Shuangdong, Yangzhou

Xiaobo XU1,2,3(), Bihu WU4, Binyi LIU2, Ganghua CHEN5   

  1. 1. Shanghai Institute of Tourism, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
    2. College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
    3. Zhoushan Municipal Tourism Committee, Zhoushan 316021, Zhejiang, China
    4. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    5. School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2016-01-28 Revised:2016-06-08 Online:2016-12-25 Published:2016-12-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.51678417, No.41500154;National Social Science Foundation of China, No.14CGL023

摘要:

旅游商业化是历史街区复兴的重要途径。基于社会空间视角,旅游历史街区商业发展是以从业群体为日常运作核心,兼及居民、游客、恩庇者(管理者)等地域主体在内的空间生产过程。旅游历史街区演化是以“空间实践”为中心环节的社会建构,其发展状态是不同主体、不同层次的空间生产相互博弈的总体涌现。依托扬州“双东”案例,运用田野调查、统计检验、对应分析、模糊数学、逻辑回归等方法,以从业者空间生产为脉络,剖析旅游商业发展机理的杂合性与矛盾性,指出商业空间状态潜伏着不对称的利益博弈和不均衡的发展效应。“双东”旅游商业开发对城市中低产阶层自主就业有较强吸附效应,使之成为商业发展的主要依托。从业群体大致分化为乐观型、寓居型、保守型,分别对应于积极评价—业务扩张、温和评价—业务维持、消极评价—业务收缩生产机理,对“双东”空间演化具有不同的响应机制和影响效应。研究分析了主体、实践、环境特质对不同类型从业个体的影响特征以及对从业群体的总体影响,认为恩庇是统摄“好恶效应”、操控利益格局的多解方案。旅游历史街区商业发展利弊兼具、相因相生,统一于历史街区的自我演替过程。

关键词: 旅游从业者, 历史街区, 旅游商业空间, 空间生产, 扬州“, 双东”

Abstract:

Tourism-oriented commercialization, a widely adopted approach to rejuvenating historic districts in China, generates positive effects as well as produces negative impacts. Social space theory suggests that the typical evolution of the commercialization of tourist historic districts (THDs) results from the collaboration of entrepreneurs, residents, tourists, and other community patrons. Entrepreneurs act as a networking hub within the community and are the orchestrators of business practices. These practices include how spaces are developed, animated, and experienced, and which are initially guided by practitioner considerations and values. Eventually, the involvement of different practitioners makes THDs shared and flexible spaces where individualized business practices lead to particular benefits for collaborators and patrons. Therefore, the development and evolution of commercial THD spaces is a melting pot of inputs and actions by diverse stakeholders and partners. To clarify and further the knowledge on the development of social spaces in THDs, this research focused on a classic THD in Shuangdong, Yangzhou, a well-known historical city in Jiangsu Province. In addition to the fieldwork, the statistical methods applied included chi-square tests, correspondence analysis, fuzzy mathematics, and logistic regression. The results for Shuangdong THD (SDTHD) showed that business practices are varied and competitive, and generate positive and negative effects. Tourism-oriented commercialization creates employment and self-employment opportunities mainly for the middle-low classes of residents inside and outside SDTHD, making them an important core for THD entrepreneurship. THD entrepreneurs were classified into three groups: (1) highly-motivated, emphasizing environmentally-friendly and business expansion practices; (2), moderately-motivated with more limited vision and a focus on business maintenance; and (3) lowly-motivated who are dissatisfied and withdraw. The distinguishable attributes and effects of the practices of these three groups were identified. Specific business tactics result from the entrepreneurs acting individually as well as collectively. Additionally, patrons and residents seek out and derive differing benefits from the THD, resulting in a complex mixture of business practices and customer and resident rewards. This research concludes that tourism-oriented commercialization produces interweaving positive and negative impacts on communities; neither of which can be completely controlled due to the complex interaction of all the players in THDs.

Key words: entrepreneurs, historic districts, tourism-oriented commercialization, Shuangdong, Yangzhou, spatial production