地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (12): 2089-2102.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201612002

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广州市中产阶层聚居区空间分异及形成机制

周春山1(), 边艳2(), 张国俊3, 胡锦灿1   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院 广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广州 510275
    2. 广州大学工商管理学院,广州 510006
    3. 广东财经大学公共管理学院,广州 510320
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-28 修回日期:2016-08-08 出版日期:2016-12-25 发布日期:2016-12-26
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:周春山(1964-), 男, 河南信阳人, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110001667M), 主要从事区域发展与城乡规划、城市地理学、城市内部空间结构研究。E-mail: zhoucs@mail.sysu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271182)

Spatial differentiation and the formation mechanism of the middle class areas in Guangzhou

Chunshan ZHOU1(), Yan BIAN2(), Guojun ZHANG3, Jincan HU1   

  1. 1. Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Geography and Planning School, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. School of Business Administration, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
    3. School of Public and Management, Guangzhou University of Finance and Economics, Guangzhou 510320, China
  • Received:2016-01-28 Revised:2016-08-08 Online:2016-12-25 Published:2016-12-26
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41271182

摘要:

随着中国社会经济的发展,中产阶层规模不断发展壮大,并逐渐成为社会主流群体,其不断增长的居住空间需求对社会空间结构具有较大影响。本文研究广州市中产阶层聚居区空间分异及形成机制,为政府制定人口发展规划、城市更新等政策提供参考依据。首先采用因子生态分析法、聚类分析法、集中度指数分析了广州市2010年中产阶层聚居区空间分布及特征,并将中产阶层聚居区划分为教育、职业、收入和混合4个亚类聚居区。其次,将2010年中产阶层聚居区与2000年的聚居区比较,发现2000-2010年广州市中产阶层聚居区空间与地域类型演变呈现以下特征:① 中产阶层聚居区区域范围有所扩大,呈现郊区化与向中心性并存现象;② 老城区外围、珠江两岸及经济开发区是中产阶层集中分布的区域;③ 中心城区内城中村外来人口的集聚带来中产阶层的逐渐消失;④ 4个亚类中产阶层聚居区呈现街道数目改变和类型转换的变化;⑤ 中产阶层聚居区呈现强稳定型、弱稳定型、衰减型和增长型4种不同地域类型的变化。最后,本文从社会阶层分化、房地产市场、全球化、传统社会空间历史延续以及个体力量和城市建设等方面对中产阶层聚居区空间分异形成机制进行探讨。

关键词: 中产阶层聚居区, 空间分异, 地域类型, 形成机制, 广州市

Abstract:

As a result of socio-economic development, the middle class in China has grown considerably and has gradually become an important social group, and its expanding housing demand has exerted a profound effect on the socio-spatial structure of cities. This paper analyzes the spatial differentiation and formation mechanism of the middle class social area in Guangzhou to provide a reference for the policy implications of social development planning and urban planning and redevelopment. Based on the fifth and sixth censuses, 148 sub-districts from 10 districts of Guangzhou in 2010 are divided into five social areas—mixed class, middle class, salaried workers, peasant class, and working class—by principal components analysis hierarchical cluster methods, and the spatial distribution and characteristics of the middle class social area are analyzed. Next, using a concentration index, the middle class community is divided into four sub-areas: the educational middle class, the professional middle class, the income middle class, and the mixed middle class. The same approach is then used to examine the spatial distribution and characteristics of the middle class social area in 2000. In comparison of the results from 2000 and 2010, it can be seen that the middle class social area in Guangzhou has experienced the following changes: (1) The middle class social area is expanding, with evident suburbanization and centralization. (2) The suburban area, the banks of the Pearl River, and the economic development zone are the main areas where the middle class is concentrated. (3) The agglomeration of a floating population in the urban villages is leading to the disappearance of the middle class social area. (4) In each sub-social area of middle class, the number and the sub-social area they belonged to have been changing from 2000 to 2010. (5) The middle class social area can be divided into four subtypes according to their changing condition: a stable type, an unstable type, a decaying type, and a growing type. Finally, this paper analyzes the mechanism of the change in the middle class social area from the perspectives of social strata polarization, real estate, globalization, the historical continuity of traditional social space, individual behavior, and urban construction.

Key words: middle class social area, spatial differentiation, formation mechanism, Guangzhou