地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (11): 1967-1978.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201611008

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

北宋路域耕地面积重建及时空特征分析

何凡能1(), 李美娇1,2(), 刘浩龙1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-20 修回日期:2016-07-30 出版日期:2016-11-25 发布日期:2016-11-29
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:何凡能(1963-), 男, 福建仙游人, 研究员, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110006132M), 主要从事历史地理与环境变迁研究。E-mail: hefn@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271227);科技基础性工作专项项目(2014FY210900)

Reconstruction of cropland area at Lu scale and its spatial-temporal characteristics in the Northern Song Dynasty

Fanneng HE1(), Meijiao LI1,2(), Haolong LIU1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2016-04-20 Revised:2016-07-30 Online:2016-11-25 Published:2016-11-29
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41271227;The Special Program for Basic Work of the Ministry of Science and Technology, China, No.2014FY210900

摘要:

基于垦田和户口史料及耕地分布影响因子的分析,本文建立了北宋册载垦田数据的订正方法以及路域耕地分布倾向模型和分配模型,重建了北宋4个时点的路域耕地面积。结果表明:① 北宋开宝九年(976年)、至道三年(997年)、治平三年(1066年)和元丰元年(1078年)的耕地总量分别为468.27×106今亩、495.53×106今亩、697.65×106今亩和731.94×106今亩,百年间耕地面积增加了约2.64亿今亩;垦殖率从开宝九年(976年)的10.8%,增加至元丰元年(1078年)的16.9%,提高了约6个百分点;而人均耕地面积由15.7今亩降至8.4今亩。② 从空间变化特征看,东南地区是北宋土地垦殖发展最快的地区,土地垦殖率增加了约12.0%,北宋中期长江中下游平原局部地区垦殖率高达40%;其次是北方地区,土地垦殖率增加了5.2%,北宋中期黄淮海平原的土地垦殖率也超过了20%;西南地区农业发展相对落后,区域土地垦殖率仅增加1.2%,除成都府路外,各路垦殖率均低于6%。③ 从评估结果看,本文所构建的路域耕地分配模型具有一定的可行性,相对误差绝对值小于20%的路域占总路数的84.2%,结果能较好地反映北宋时期路域耕地面积的时空变化特征。

关键词: 土地利用/土地覆被, 耕地面积, 路域重建, 时空特征, 北宋

Abstract:

Based on "Cropland Taxes" and "the Number of Households" data recorded in historical documents, this paper estimated cropland area of the Northern Song Dynasty by analyzing some society factors in this dynasty, including land use policies and taxation system. Besides, by quantifying the relationship among population proportion, per capita cropland and cropland spatial pattern in the mid-Northern Song Dynasty, we designed a cropland distribution model. And the model was used to reconstruct cropland area at Lu (administrative region of the Northern Song Dynasty) scale for AD 976, 997, 1066 and 1078. The results are shown as follows: (1) The cropland area of the whole study area for AD 976, 997, 1066 and 1078 of the Northern Song Dynasty were about 468.27 million mu (Chinese area unit, 1 mu=666.7 m2), 495.53 million mu, 697.65 million mu and 731.94 million mu, respectively, and 264 million mu was increased for AD 976-1078. The annual growth rate of cropland area was about 4.4‰, and the reclamation rate (i.e. ratio of cropland area to total land area) increased from 10.7% to 16.8%, and per capita cropland area decreased from 15.7 mu to 8.4 mu. (2) In terms of the characteristics of cropland spatial pattern change, the reclamation rate of the Southeast, Northern and Southwest in the Northern Song territory increased by 12.0%, 5.2% and 1.2%, respectively, and that of some regions of the Yangtze River Plain increased to more than 40%, and for the North China Plain the reclamation rate increased to more than 20%. The reclamation rate of the Southwest (except the Chengdu Plain) in the Northern Song territory was less than 6%. (3) The evaluation results show that the absolute relative error of 84.2% Lu was less than 20%, so the cropland distribution model is feasible. Therefore, our reconstruction results can reflect the spatial-temporal characteristics of cropland area in the Northern Song Dynasty.

Key words: LUCC, cropland area, reconstruction at Lu scale, spatial-temporal characteristics, the Northern Song Dynasty