地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (11): 1875-1885.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201611001

• 气候与水文 •    下一篇

气候变化和人类活动对中国地表水文过程影响定量研究

刘剑宇1,2(), 张强3,4(), 陈喜5, 顾西辉1,2   

  1. 1. 中山大学水资源与环境系,广州 510275
    2. 中山大学华南地区水循环与水安全广东省普通高校重点实验室,广州 510275
    3. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室,北京 100875
    4. 北京师范大学 减灾与应急管理研究院,北京 100875
    5. 河海大学水文水资源学院,南京 210098
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-09 修回日期:2016-10-22 出版日期:2016-11-25 发布日期:2016-11-29
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘剑宇(1991-), 男, 江西丰城人, 博士生, 主要从事气象水文学研究。E-mail: liujianyu68@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家杰出青年科学基金项目(51425903);国家自然科学基金重大项目(51190091);安徽省自然科学基金项目(1508085MD65)

Quantitative evaluations of human- and climate-inducedimpacts on hydrological processes of China

Jianyu LIU1,2(), Qiang ZHANG3,4(), Xi CHEN5, Xihui GU1,2   

  1. 1. Department of Water Resources and Environment, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Water Security in Southern China of Guangdong High Education Institute, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    4. Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    5. School of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
  • Received:2016-07-09 Revised:2016-10-22 Online:2016-11-25 Published:2016-11-29
  • Supported by:
    National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of China, No.51425903;Major Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.51190091;Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation, No.1508085MD65

摘要:

利用中国372个水文站月径流数据(1960-2000年)及41个水文站年径流数据(2001-2014年),采用基于Budyko假设的水热耦合平衡方程,构建气候变化和人类活动对径流变化影响定量评估模型,在Penman-Monteith潜在蒸发分析基础上,进一步分析气象因子对径流变化的弹性系数,量化气候变化和人类活动对径流变化的影响。结果表明:① 中国北方地区流域径流变化对各气象因子弹性系数明显大于中国南方地区。就全国而言,径流变化对各因子的弹性系数为:降水>土地利用/土地覆盖变化(LUCC)>相对湿度>太阳辐射>最高气温>风速>最低气温;② 1980-2000年,气候变化总体上有利于增加中国年径流量,而降水对年径流量增加的贡献最为显著;③ 1980-2000年,中国南方流域中,气候变化对年径流变化的影响以增加作用为主,而北方流域,以减少年径流作用为主。对中国大多数流域径流变化而言,人类活动的影响主要以减少年径流量为主。2001-2014年,气候变化以减少径流量为主,人类活动对径流变化的影响程度明显增强,气候变化与人类活动对径流变化的贡献率分别为53.5%、46.5%。该研究对气候变化与人类活动影响下,中国水资源规划管理、防灾减灾及保障水资源安全具有重要理论与现实意义。

关键词: 径流变化, Budyko假设, 弹性系数, 气候变化, 人类活动, 中国

Abstract:

Based on monthly streamflow data from 372 stations covering the period 1960-2000 and the monthly streamflow data from 41 stations covering the period 2001-2014 across China, human- and climate-induced impacts on hydrological processes were quantified for 10 river basins in China based on development of Budyko-based coupled water-energy balance model. Penman-Monteith potential evapotranspiration model was used to analyze evapotranspiration processes. Besides, elasticity coefficient was also quantified for the impacts of meteorological variables on streamflow changes. The results indicated that: (1) Compared to southern China, streamflow changes are more sensitive to climate changes and human activities in northern China. Generally, relative humidity changes have positive impacts on streamflow changes. However, the maximum temperature, minimum temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and LUCC changes tend to go against streamflow changes. The elasticity coefficients of streamflow changes for meteorological variables are: precipitation > LUCC > relative humidity > solar radiation > maximum temperature > wind speed > minimum temperature; (2) Climate changes during 1980-2000 generally help to increase annual streamflow, and the increase of streamflow by precipitation changes is most evident, and the increase of streamflow depth reaches 12.1 mm. However, impacts of meteorological variables on streamflow changes are shifting from one river basin to another, e.g. the maximum temperature and relative humidity help to increase streamflow in northern China but decrease streamflow magnitude in southern China; (3) In general, human activities tend to decrease streamflow. Changes of streamflow in the Yangtze, Songhua, Northwest, and Southeast river basins are 78.7%, 76.9%, 65.7%, and 84.2%, respectively, which can be attributed to climate changes. However, human activities play a dominant role in modifications of streamflow changes, such as Pearl River basin, Huaihe River basin, Haihe River basin, Yellow River basin, Liaohe River basin and southwest river basins, with fractional contribution being 59.4%, 77.3%, 66.2%, 69.7%, 75.3%, and 70.4%, respectively. Generally, the fraction of human activities and climate changes to streamflow changes in the river basins across China can reach 71.0% and 29.0% respectively in river basins, where climate changes play a dominant role in streamflow changes. The results of this study can be helpful to human mitigation to climate changes in terms of water resources management.

Key words: streamflow changes, elasticity coefficient, Budyko hypothesis, climate changes, human activities, China