地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (10): 1752-1766.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610008

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中国沿海港口煤炭运输的空间分异格局及演化

王伟1,2,3, 王成金1()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2015-08-07 修回日期:2016-02-25 出版日期:2016-11-28 发布日期:2016-11-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王伟(1990-), 女, 山东青州人, 博士生, 中国地理学会会员(S110009466A), 主要从事交通地理与区域发展研究。E-mail: wang21600@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571113)

Spatial evolution of coal transportation of coastal ports in China

WANG Wei1,2,3, WANG Chengjin1()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2015-08-07 Revised:2016-02-25 Online:2016-11-28 Published:2016-11-28
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41571113]

摘要:

煤炭是支撑和保障国家经济发展和社会进步的战略性资源,煤炭运输一直是中国综合运输体系的重要组成部分,而港口是煤炭运输网络中的关键集散中转节点。本文以中国沿海港口为研究对象,以1973-2013年为时间尺度,刻画沿海港口煤炭运输的空间分异格局及演化,重点分析港口煤炭下水与接卸的空间格局演变,归纳总结主要特征和发展规律;然后,采用数理模型和指标,评价港口煤炭下水与接卸的空间集聚水平及变化;最后分析港口煤炭运输的专业化职能及空间分异格局,揭示煤炭下水港和接卸港的空间关系及演变规律。研究发现,中国沿海港口的煤炭运输格局由“南进北出”模式演变为“全进北出”模式,但接卸职能突出的港口仍然集中在长江以南地区,煤炭下水港集中于渤海西岸,而环渤海地区的丹东、大连、烟台、青岛等港口由传统的煤炭下水港演变为接卸港。本研究有助于丰富交通地理和能源地理的理论研究,并为中国沿海港口煤炭运输体系的布局优化提供指导。

关键词: 沿海港口, 煤炭运输, 空间分异, 空间演化, 进出港, 中国

Abstract:

Coal is the basic resource that can provide support and protection for the development of national economy and our society. Thus, coal transportation has been an important component of China's comprehensive transportation system. In this system, port is the most vital transit node. This paper, taking coastal ports in China as the study subject, analyzes the pattern evolution of coal transportation from 1973 to 2013. We focus on the spatial pattern of coal output and input, and summarize the main characteristics and the development law. Then, using mathematical models and indicators, we examine the spatial concentration level and its changes in ports' coal input and output. Finally, we analyze the specialized functions and the spatial differentiation of the ports in coal transportation in order to reveal their spatial relations and temporal evolution. We found that the spatial pattern of coal transportation for China's coastal port changed from "south input and north output" to "all input and north output". However, the prominent ports in coal unloading are still concentrated in the south of the Yangtze River. Coal loading is concentrated on the west bank of the Bohai Sea. In addition, some ports around the Bohai, such as Dandong, Dalian, Yantai and Qingdao, have changed from the traditional coal unloading ports to loading ones. This study enriches the theory of transport geography, and we hope it can provide guidance for China's coal transportation optimization.

Key words: coastal ports, coal transportation, spatial differentiation, spatial evolution, loading and unloading, China