地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (10): 1710-1720.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610004

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基于空间句法的武汉城区“两抢一盗”犯罪分布环境

郑文升1,2, 卓蓉蓉1,2, 罗静1,2, 余斌1,2, 王晓芳1,2()   

  1. 1. 华中师范大学地理过程分析与模拟湖北省重点实验室,武汉 430079
    2. 湖北省发展和改革委员会 华中师范大学武汉城市圈研究院,武汉 430079
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-19 修回日期:2016-05-03 出版日期:2016-11-28 发布日期:2016-11-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:郑文升(1982-), 男, 安徽六安人, 博士, 副教授, 主要研究方向为城镇化与城市发展。

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41001100, 41371183, 41671179)教育部人文社科基金项目(15YJCZH174)中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(CCNU15A02003, CCNU15A05003, CCNU16JCZX09)

The distribution environment of robbery, snatch and theft crime based on space syntax: A case study of the central area of Wuhan

ZHENG Wensheng1,2, ZHUO Rongrong1,2, LUO Jing1,2, YU Bin1,2, WANG Xiaofang1,2()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory for Geographical Process Analysis & Simulation, Hubei Province, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China;
    2. Academy of Wuhan Metropolitan Area, Hubei Development and Reform Commission & Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China;
  • Received:2015-05-19 Revised:2016-05-03 Published:2016-11-28 Online:2016-11-28
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41001100, No.41371183, No.41671179 Humanities and Social Sciences Foundation of Ministry of Education in China, No.15YJCZH174 Fundamental Research

摘要:

结合空间组构与环境犯罪学,初步建构基于空间句法的犯罪分布环境阐释理论。以武汉市中心城区为案例区域,以立案判决的2013年盗窃罪、抢劫罪和抢夺罪案件分布地点为数据源,以典型犯罪空间为实证研究对象,解读城市“两抢一盗”犯罪现象的分布环境。宏观尺度下,空间组构自发涌现的城市节点容易成为犯罪吸引场,与犯罪热点区分布形成密切关系;节点可达性衔接宏微观空间,影响犯罪人到达、逃逸犯罪地点成本的大小以及犯罪失败风险的高低;微观尺度上,局部空间与整体空间割裂形成的“空间缝隙”为犯罪人的空间探索创造了可能,空间的高集成度与空间使用者的单一化强化了犯罪集聚;空间拓扑深度则通过塑造社区人流的社会结构与领域感影响犯罪的空间防卫。空间句法为分析犯罪人的滋生环境、犯罪动机的刺激环境、犯罪人“到达”、“实施”、“逃逸”的活动环境以及防卫犯罪活动的约束环境提供了有力支撑。

关键词: “, 两抢一盗”, 空间句法, 分布环境, 武汉市

Abstract:

By integrating spatial configuration and environmental criminology theory, this study tentatively constructed a theoretical framework for elucidating crime distribution environment based on space syntax. Address-level crime data from law court was used to interpret the distribution environment of robbery, snatch and theft crime. The central area of Wuhan was taken as a case study area, and several typical crime spaces were analyzed for further empirical studies. This research showed the following four results: (1) Under the macroscopic space, crime hot spots are closely associated with crime attractors, which are the spontaneous emerging urban nodes in spatial configuration. (2) The accessibility of urban nodes that link the macroscopic spaces with the microcosmic ones, has an impact on the cost of arriving at and escaping from crime locations and the risks of failure. (3) Under the microcosmic space, the "spatial gap" generated by the separation of global and local space, creates potentials for criminals' spatial exploration. Meanwhile, homogeneous use of space intensify crime concentration with high integration. (4) By forming the social structure and territoriality of a community, the topological depth of space influences the defense space. In conclusion, the proposed space syntax method provides a theoretical and technical support for systematically elucidating the breeding environment of criminals, the stimulation environment of criminal motive, the criminal activation environment and the constrained environment for preventing criminal activities.

Key words: robbery, snatch and theft crime, space syntax, distribution environment, Wuhan