地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (10): 1680-1695.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610002

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城镇购房衡量的农业转移人口流向特征与形成机制

吴文恒(), 张敬飒, 徐凯颖, 屈英豪, 朱虹颖   

  1. 西北大学城市与环境学院,西安 710127
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-26 修回日期:2016-06-20 出版日期:2016-11-28 发布日期:2016-11-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:吴文恒(1977-), 男, 江苏邳州人, 博士, 副教授, 主要研究方向为城乡发展与规划。E-mail: wuwh@nwu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41101555) 陕西省自然科学基础研究计划项目(2015JM4139) 陕西省社会科学基金项目(2016D022);National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41101555 Natural Science Basic Research Plan Project in Shaanxi Province of China, No.2015JM4139 Social Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, No.2016D022

Floating characteristics and formation mechanism of rural-urban migrants in China from the perspective of the urban house purchasing

WU Wenheng, ZHANG Jingsa, XU Kaiying, QU Yinghao, ZHU Hongying   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
  • Received:2016-03-26 Revised:2016-06-20 Published:2016-11-28 Online:2016-11-28

摘要:

农业转移人口在城镇购置房产切合了新型城镇化规划和中央经济工作会议对市民化的要求。研究购房定居或准备定居城镇群体的流向特征,有助更好地落实有效供给。随机问卷调查乡村务农人员、打工者,在校大学生、研究生及其背后的家庭成员,采用回忆或电话问询方式填写农村购房转移个体和家庭基本状况,获得江苏、河南、陕西等24省区1327份有效信息,分析中国购房转移群体的流向特征与态势,用Spearman双变量相关分析和多项分类Logistic回归分析方法从个体或家庭角度探究购房流向分异的成因及形成机制。结果表明:20世纪80-90年代购房转移人口少,2000年以来渐多,趋向年轻化,教育程度较高群体多购房转移到规模较大或等级较高的城市。省区内城市,尤其县级城市是购房转移主要地,镇吸纳能力整体较弱,原住地层次影响迁住地高度。东部地区省区内购房转移多元分化,中部地区在县级以上城市分散购房转移,西部地区购房转移到省区内地级以上城市占一半以上。需求互补性、中介机会、距离远近影响购房转移及其分异,获得期望的经济收入加以城市的吸引力,是人们在工作或打工地购置房产的深层原因;没有稳固工作地点,一般倾向家乡的县级城市、镇或者就近的高等级城市购房。购房转移和流向分异与教育程度、固定工作与否、是否购房地工作、现工作地时间、购房年龄等个人或家庭发展条件的因子显著相关,是宏观社会环境政策影响、中观城乡系统各种媒介作用与微观个体或家庭成员主观行为多向耦合综合驱动的结果。

关键词: 城镇购房, 农业转移人口, 流向特征, 城镇化

Abstract:

At present, more and more rural-urban migrants purchase urban houses in China. Studies on the floating characteristics of purchasing urban housing for a permanent home and deeply understanding the direction and difference of rural-urban migrants might help to know public migration intention from the demand side. Furthermore, relevant policies of urbanization and citizenation could be better formulated from the supply side. In this study, 1327 valid information from China's 24 provinces and autonomous regions such as Jiangsu, Henan, Shaanxi and so on was collected through random questionnaire survey of farmers, migrant workers, undergraduate students, graduate students and their family members. Basic situation of rural-urban migrants and their family members of purchasing urban housing were filled out by participants' memories or telephone inquiries. Floating characteristics of rural-urban migrants for purchasing urban housing were summarized by data analysis. Furthermore, causes and formation mechanism of floating direction differences were probed into from the perspective of individual or the family by spearman bivariate correlation analysis and multiple classification logistic regression analysis methods. The results show that firstly, few rural-urban migrants purchased urban housing during the 1980s-1990s, whereas migrants of purchasing urban housing have been gradually growing since 2000 and tend to be younger. What's more, migrants of higher education level purchase housing in the cities of larger scale or higher grade in general. Secondly, cities within the province or autonomous region, especially, county-level cities are the main destination of rural-urban migrants purchasing urban housing, and the attraction of town is weak as a whole. It can be seen from the data that the original location of migrants affects the floating orientation of purchasing urban housing, namely, rural households of ordinary township move to the county-level cities and towns nearby, but the households near big cities specially provincial cities prefer to purchase their housing in those higher-level cities. Thirdly, cities and towns of different levels in the eastern provinces, compared with the other regions, take a relatively larger proportion of purchasing housing, and from the whole country, towns take the largest percentage. These indicate there exists the relatively developed regional economy and the urbanization pattern of coordinated development among large, medium and small cities and towns; Rural-urban migrants dispersedly purchase their housing in cities at or above the county level in the central provinces, where the county-level cities and cities of other provinces at prefecture level and above have the largest proportion of purchasing housing among the three regions. The urban housing of rural-urban migrants in the central provinces is decentralized; In the western provinces, migrants who purchase their urban housing in the cities of prefecture level and above account for more than half, and the proportion of migrants flowing to towns by purchasing housing is the lowest among the three regions. These reflect that it is still underdeveloped and unbalanced inside. Finally, it should say that it is the interaction between the urban and rural demand, the interference of other cities and the distance to the city that influence spatial distribution of migrants for purchasing urban housing. Moreover, the desired economic income and the attraction of the city should be the underlying causes that migrants purchase the urban housing in the cities they work. People prefer to choose the housing in the county-level cities and towns of their hometown or the higher levels of cities nearby if they do not have the stable work in the cities. Through the quantitative analysis we also found that the floating differentiation between migrants for purchasing urban housing is significantly correlated with the personal or family factors such as education degree, fixed job or not, work in the city of purchasing the housing or not, work time in the current city, the age of buyers, and so on. In a word, the social environment and policy implications at the macro level, all media's role of the urban and rural system at the middle level and the subjective behavior of individual or family members at the micro level comprehensively drive the spatial differentiation of rural-urban migrants.

Key words: urban house purchasing, rural-urban migrants, floating characteristics, urbanization