地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (9): 1640-1652.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201609014

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4.2~3.5kaBP嵩山南麓聚落的时空特征及其演化模式

李中轩1(), 吴国玺1, 朱诚2, 郑敬刚1, 李开封3, 焦士兴4   

  1. 1. 许昌学院城乡规划与园林学院,许昌 461000
    2. 南京大学地理与海洋学院,南京 210023
    3. 河南大学环境规划学院,开封 475001
    4. 安阳师院环境与旅游学院,安阳 455000
  • 收稿日期:2016-02-25 修回日期:2016-04-28 出版日期:2016-11-25 发布日期:2016-11-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李中轩(1971-), 博士, 副教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110007772M), 主要研究方向为自然地理学。E-mail: aysylzx@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41541005);河南省高等学校重点研究项目(16A170011)

Spatial and temporal pattern of the 4.2-3.5 kaBP settlements and its succession models in the south of the Songshan Mountain

Zhongxuan LI1(), Guoxi WU1, Cheng ZHU2, Jinggang ZHENG1, Kaifeng LI3, Shixing JIAO4   

  1. 1. School of Urban-Rural Planning Science, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000, Henan, China
    2. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China
    4.School of Environment and Tourism, Anyang Normal College, Anyang 455000, Henan, China
  • Received:2016-02-25 Revised:2016-04-28 Online:2016-11-25 Published:2016-11-28
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41541005;Henan Provincial Key Research Program for Higher Schools, No.16A170011

摘要:

用GIS方法和既有的考古资料研究了嵩山南麓颖河上游和双洎河上游龙山晚期和夏商期聚落的时空特征。受距今4000年前降温事件影响,嵩山南麓地区的史前聚落在夏商期对地貌的选择与龙山晚期有显著差异,而且两个时期聚落的R-S分布也从多要素竞争型向单因素支配型转变;对聚落在龙山晚期和夏商期的域面进行的泰森分析表明,环境变迁对聚落域变化幅度的影响在颍河上游大于双洎河上游。根据影响聚落分布的自然和文化因子,文章认为龙山晚期的聚落空间结构演化表现为文化选择型模式,反映了人本主义的规划法则,而夏代早期的聚落结构则表现出环境选择型的某些特征。基于此演化序列,文章最后归纳了气候转折期史前聚落演化的两种模式。

关键词: 嵩山, 史前聚落, 龙山文化, 位序—, 规模法则

Abstract:

Being the birthplace of the Longshan Culture in Henan Province, the south of the Songshan Mountain has been focused due to its continuity and changes in settlement pattern. Considering the regional differences, the study area was divided into two parts: 1) the upper reaches of the Yinghe River, which have small plains along the valley, and 2) the upper region of Shuangji River, where the loess highlands and narrow valleys are distributed. Influenced by the 4 ka BP cooling event, natural disasters occurred frequently and the settlements tended to move towards high elevation areas. Also, terrain properties of the settlements, slope directions and gradients for instance, varied significantly. Unlike the Xia-Shang Period, the Rank-Size curves of the settlements showed equilibrium characteristics in the late Longshan Period, suggesting a result from interaction of multiple factors. Using domain analysis of Thiessen polygon, we found that environmental changes had greater influence upon the upper reaches of the Yinghe River than upon the upper region of the Shuangji River. With both the nature and the culture considered, this article suggested that the succession of the settlements was driven by cultural factors in the late Longshan Period. And in the Xia-Shang Period, to a large extent, the succession of the settlements corresponded to the rule of natural selection.

Key words: the Songshan Mountain, prehistoric settlements, the Longshan Period, rank-size law