地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (9): 1629-1639.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201609013

• • 上一篇    下一篇

环嵩山地区史前聚落分布时空模式研究

鲁鹏1(), 田燕1, 陈盼盼1, 莫多闻2()   

  1. 1. 河南省科学院地理研究所,郑州 450052
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-13 修回日期:2016-04-18 出版日期:2016-11-25 发布日期:2019-04-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:鲁鹏(1978-), 男, 陕西富平人, 博士, 助理研究员, 中国地理学会会员(S110010700M), 主要从事环境考古研究。E-mail: bulate_0@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671014, 41201414, 41171006);国家社科基金重大项目(11&ZD183);嵩山文化研究会重大项目

Spatial and temporal modes of prehistoric settlement distribution around Songshan Mountain

Peng LU1(), Yan TIAN1, Panpan CHEN1, Duowen MO2()   

  1. 1. Institute of Geography, Henan Academy of Sciences, Zhengzhou 450052, China
    2. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2016-01-13 Revised:2016-04-18 Online:2016-11-25 Published:2019-04-10
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41671014, No.41201414, No.41171006;The Major Plan of National Social Science Foundation of China, No.11&ZD183;The Major Project of Songshan Mountain Culture Research Society

摘要:

本文利用GIS空间分析、模型分析,按照裴李岗(9000-7000 aBP)、仰韶(7000-5000 aBP)、龙山(5000-4000 aBP)、夏商(4000-3000 aBP)4个时期对环嵩山地区史前(9000-3000 aBP)聚落的空间分布形态、演化特征及其形成机制进行研究与分析,提出了一套适应于史前聚落时空分布模式研究的分析方法。结果表明:① 环嵩山地区裴李岗、仰韶、龙山、夏商4个时期史前聚落均具有集聚型空间分布特征,其中裴李岗和夏商时期聚落分别具有2个集聚中心,仰韶和龙山时期聚落分别具有3个集聚中心;② 区域史前聚落空间分布重心具有由南向北迁移的特征。裴李岗时期聚落以分布于南部地区为主,仰韶聚落分布重心开始向北部迁移,这种态势在龙山时期仍在持续。夏商时期,聚落分布形成了以嵩山北部为重心的东西分异特征;③ 史前聚落空间分布总体形态及演化特征的形成与自然环境条件与人类文化演进关系密切。以狩(渔)猎采集为主的经济形态使得裴李岗聚落主要分布于近山丘陵岗地与近水高台地两种地貌单元。全新世中期温暖湿润的气候条件对于南部平原地区影响较大,近山地区地势较高、顶面平坦的地貌单元成为仰韶、龙山时期聚落营建与开展农业生产理想的场所。夏商时期社会形态的复杂化使得聚落具有围绕都邑性中心聚落集中分布的趋势,嵩山北部也成为聚落分布的核心区域。

关键词: 环嵩山地区, 史前聚落, 时空分布模式, 空间分析, 形成机制

Abstract:

Spatial and temporal distribution patterns are very important for recognizing the formation and development of ancient civilizations. Indeed, different prehistoric settlement distribution modes, including 'centralized', 'average', and 'stochastic', correspond with different social organizations, site-choices, and human choice of, and adaptation to, the environment. By implementing GIS spatial and model analyses, the aim of this research was to study the spatial distributional patterns, mechanisms of formation, and evolution of the prehistoric settlements (9000-3000 years before present, aBP), which are located around Songshan Mountain. These settlements are grouped into four periods, namely the Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 aBP), the Yangshao Culture (7000-5000 aBP), the Longshan Culture (5000-4000 aBP), and the Xia-Shang Culture (4000-3000 aBP). Indeed, on the basis of this research a new model for explaining prehistoric settlement distribution was developed and applied, leading to three main results. First, prehistoric settlement distribution patterns for all four periods are centralized around Songshan Mountain. The Peiligang and Xia-Shang settlements had two cluster centers, respectively, while the Yangshao and Longshan settlements had three cluster centers each. Second, the distributional center of gravity for prehistoric settlements in this region presents migration from south to north, while Peiligang period settlements were mainly distributed to the south of Songshan Mountain, by the Yangshao period, the main concentration of settlements had begun to move northwards. This trend continued into the Longshan period, before finally differentiating along an east-west transect to the north of Songshan Mountain in the Xia-Shang period. Third, results show that the pattern and evolution of prehistoric settlement distributions were closely related to prevailing environmental conditions and human cultural developments. Indeed, because the main economy of the Peiligang period was hunting, fishing and gathering, most settlements at this time were either distributed on hills, near the mountain, on the high platform, or close to water. In the mid-Holocene, warm and moist weather conditions exerted a significant impact on the southern plain, and high and flat geomorphologic units closer to the mountain became ideal locations for settlements in the Yangshao and Longshan periods. By the time of the Xia-Shang periods, social organization had become more complex, so settlements began to concentrate intensively around the capital region. As a result, the area north of Songshan Mountain became the core region of settlement distribution.

Key words: Songshan Mountain area, prehistoric settlement, spatial and temporal modes of distribution, spatial analysis, formation mechanisms