地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (9): 1544-1561.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201609007

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西南山地滑坡灾害生态风险评价——以大理白族自治州为例

杜悦悦1(), 彭建1,2, 赵士权2,3, 胡智超1,4, 王仰麟1()   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871
    2. 北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院 城市人居环境科学与技术重点实验室,深圳 518055
    3. 香港中文大学地理与资源管理系,香港
    4. 北京工业大学建筑与城市规划学院,北京 100124
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-07 修回日期:2016-04-15 出版日期:2016-11-25 发布日期:2016-11-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杜悦悦(1991-), 女, 湖北襄阳人, 博士生, 主要研究方向为综合自然地理与景观生态。E-mail: duyueyue91@pku.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国土资源部公益性行业科研专项经费课题(201311001-2)

Ecological risk assessment of landslide disasters in mountainous areas of Southwest China: A case study in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture

Yueyue DU1(), Jian PENG1,2, Shiquan ZHAO2,3, Zhichao HU1,4, Yanglin WANG1()   

  1. 1. Laboratory for Earth Surface Process, Ministry of Education, College of Urban and Environment Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, School of Urban Planning and Design, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China
    3. Department of Geography and Resource Management, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    4. College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
  • Received:2016-01-07 Revised:2016-04-15 Online:2016-11-25 Published:2016-11-28
  • Supported by:
    The Commonwealth Project of the Ministry of Land and Resources, No.201311001-2

摘要:

本文以云南省大理白族自治州为例,综合考量生态风险源、受体、暴露响应过程及生态终点,采用信息量模型评估滑坡灾害危险性,基于景观格局指数表征生态脆弱性,并将生态系统服务纳入风险损失的定量表征,定量评估流域滑坡灾害生态风险。结果表明:① 低于1800 m高程、15°~25°坡度、小于0.31植被覆盖指数等10方面因素构成了诱发大理州滑坡灾害的最佳信息量组合,全州普遍处于滑坡灾害危险性中高水平,且西北低、东南高;② 生态脆弱性高值区主要集中在红河流域南部、金沙江流域东南部、澜沧江流域中部;③ 低生态损失流域的水源涵养、粮食供给服务相对较差,生态损失中等流域的净初级生产、土壤保持服务优势明显,高生态损失流域则具有较强的粮食供给和水源涵养服务;④ 基于高中低3种生态风险等级和“高危险—低脆弱—低损失”等8种风险结构,全州367个小流域可划分出避让监测预警区、生态保护恢复区、避让保护兼顾区、自然适应调控区等4种风险防范类型区。

关键词: 滑坡灾害生态风险, 灾害危险性, 生态脆弱性, 潜在生态损失, 风险防范, 大理白族自治州

Abstract:

Taking Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture as an example, the study assesses ecological risk of landslide geological disasters in terms of risk stressors, risk receptors, exposure and response process, and ecological end points. To be specific, firstly, the information method is used to evaluate the hazard of landslide disasters. Secondly, ecological vulnerability is evaluated based on landscape pattern metrics. Thirdly, the potential ecological damage of the study area is identified according to the ecosystem service assessment. Finally, the ecological risk of landslide disasters is comprehensively evaluated, and the partitions of risk precaution and governance are distinguished. The results show that, (1) 10 aspects including geography, geology and human activity factors, such as elevation less than 1800 m, slope within 15°-25°, NDVI less than 0.31, are the best information combination for inducing landslide geographical disasters in Dali Prefecture. As to the hazard of landslide geological disasters, the whole Dali prefecture is generally at medium and high risk levels of landslide and debris flow disasters. And the risk of northwest is lower than that of southeast; (2) the areas with high ecological vulnerability are mainly concentrated in the south of the Red River watershed, southeast of the Jinsha River watershed and the central part of the Lancang River watershed. Watersheds with low ecological damage have relatively poor water conservation service and food supply service. Watersheds with medium ecological damage have obvious advantage in providing net primary production and soil conservation service. Watersheds with high ecological damage would have relatively strong food supply and water conservation service; (3) the ecological risk of landslide disasters in Dali Prefecture presented 3 levels and 8 types of risk structures. Then 367 small watersheds were divided into 4 partitions of risk prevention and governance strategies, i.e., risk avoidance and warning areas, ecological protection and restoration areas, risk avoidance as well as ecological protection areas, and natural adaption areas.

Key words: ecological risk of landslide disasters, geological hazard, ecological vulnerability, ecological potential damage, risk prevention and governance, Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture