地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (9): 1494-1508.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201609003

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中国土壤湿度的时空变化特征

张蕾1(), 吕厚荃1(), 王良宇1, 杨冰韵2   

  1. 1. 国家气象中心,北京 100081
    2. 国家卫星气象中心,北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-29 修回日期:2016-06-16 出版日期:2016-11-25 发布日期:2016-11-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张蕾(1987-), 男, 江苏南通人, 硕士, 主要从事农业气象灾害预警与风险评估。E-mail: leizhang@cma.gov.cn

  • 基金资助:
    公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201306045)

Spatial-temporal characteristics of soil moisture in China

Lei ZHANG1(), Houquan LU1(), Liangyu WANG1, Bingyun YANG2   

  1. 1. National Meteorological Center, Beijing 100081, China
    2. National Satellite Meteorological Center, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2016-04-29 Revised:2016-06-16 Online:2016-11-25 Published:2016-11-28
  • Supported by:
    Meteorological Public Welfare Profession of China, No.GYHY201306045

摘要:

基于中国155个农业气象观测站1981-2010年逐旬土壤湿度资料,分析了全国和12个气候区域0~50 cm逐层的土壤湿度时空分布规律,采用趋势分析和Cramér-von Mises(CVM)方法探究了土壤湿度的变化趋势及突变性。结果表明:西南、江淮、东北、江南、江汉、黄淮和华南地区各层土壤湿度均高于全国平均值,内蒙古地区最低;随着深度增加,西南地区土壤湿度增加最明显,仅青藏高原地区土壤湿度减小。不同区域0~50 cm各层土壤湿度年变化和季节变化差异明显,并具有阶段性特征,大部地区深层土壤湿度高于浅层;总体上,新疆、华南、华北、青藏高原、东北、黄淮地区1981-2010年土壤湿度减小趋势显著,其中新疆地区减小最为明显。除江淮地区外,各区域土壤湿度均存在较为明显的年际差异,突变时段主要集中在20世纪80年代后期至90年代初期、90年代后期两个时间段。

关键词: 土壤湿度, 气候区划, 线性趋势, CVM检验, 中国

Abstract:

Using actual observed soil moisture data of 155 agro-meteorological stations across China, at dekadal scale from 1981 to 2010, this paper examined the spatial and temporal characteristics of soil moisture at each 10 cm depth from 0 to 50 cm, at regional and national scales. Annual trend and significant change point were detected through tendency analysis and Cramér-von Mises test methods. Since soil texture and crop types were approximately homogeneous in each climatic region, regional average variation of soil moisture could be observed in the analysis. Mean soil moisture was between 15% and 25% in most regions while it was above 25% in the northern part of Northeast China and southern part of Southwest China. At each depth, larger soil moisture was detected in Southwest China, Jianghuai, Northeast China, Jiangnan, Jianghan, Huanghuai and South China, while the smallest value was observed in Inner Mongolia. As soil deepening, except in Tibetan Plateau, increases in soil moisture were apparent, being a maximal magnitude in Southwest China. Obviously, as well as periodical characteristics, annual and seasonal difference of soil moisture emerged at each depth, corresponding well to regional precipitation, temperature, and water demand for planting crops. An obvious freezing-increasing-deceasing-increasing trend existed in Northeast China, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang, a variation of deceasing-increasing-fluctuating in North China, Huanghuai, and eastern Northwest China, a multiple fluctuation in Jianghuai, Jianghan and Jiangnan, and a deceasing-increasing-deceasing trend in South China and Southwest China, while an increasing-deceasing trend was found in the Tibetan Plateau. Soil moisture at a greater depth was higher than that at superficial layers. Annual soil moisture varied at each depth, but the mean value decreased from 1981 to 2010. Such annual variation could be well explained by corresponding temperature and precipitation. Consequently, soil moisture tended to decrease in response to temperature increase, following climate change. Apart from climatic factors, soil texture and crop type, as well as human activity, can have influence on soil moisture, which is needed to be studied further. Soil moisture decreased in Xinjiang, South China, North China, Tibetan Plateau, Northeast China and Huanghuai among which Xinjiang was most remarkable with a velocity above -2.3%?(10a)-1. Except in Jianghuai, a significant change of soil moisture was detected, mainly during two periods, i.e. from the late 1980s to early 1990s, and late 1990s.

Key words: soil moisture, climatic zoning, linear tendency, Cramé, r-von Mises test, China