地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (8): 1400-1415.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201608009

• • 上一篇    下一篇

重化工业集群式创新机制与空间响应研究

林兰()   

  1. 上海社会科学院城市与人口发展研究所,上海 200020
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-30 修回日期:2016-04-10 出版日期:2016-08-25 发布日期:2016-08-30
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:林兰(1975-), 女, 江苏南京人, 博士, 副研究员, 主要研究方向为技术扩散与区域创新。E-mail: linlan@sass.org.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371147);国家留学基金资助项目(201308310222)

Innovation dynamics and spatial response of heavy-chemical industry: Rethinking the cluster innovation

Lan LIN()   

  1. Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Shanghai 200020, China
  • Received:2015-12-30 Revised:2016-04-10 Online:2016-08-25 Published:2016-08-30
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41371147;National Foundation for Studying Abroad, No.201308310222

摘要:

本文从集群权力分层视角出发,以德国化学工业和汽车、光伏重工产业为研究对象,采用多种空间计量模型分析方法,研究重化工业创新模式及其空间组织形态变化。理论研究结果表明,重化工业分布的弱地理邻近与空间尺度扩大是基于其产业技术特征和创新合作特点的“必然”:由于集群技术权力分层导致其创新外部性发生根本性改变,地理邻近非再必需,创新合作空间尺度由集群向区域层面拓展。德国实证研究分析揭示:重化工业空间布局呈显著弱地理邻近分布效应;其空间集聚形态已非传统意义上的产业集群,而是依托更大空间尺度的产业集聚带;重工与化工产业有着基于对综合性知识和共性技术扩散共同需求的区位指向;其核心企业因对创新合作者的高度选择权而呈现“孤岛效应”布局。研究指出,重视重化工业技术创新垂直扩散能力的培育、建立多生产环节的共性技术联盟、重视大工业区区域创新协同合作将有助于促进中国重化工业创新升级和空间布局优化。

关键词: 重化工业, 集群, 技术创新, 空间区位, 德国

Abstract:

From a power hierarchy perspective, this study investigates the innovation pattern and the changes of spatial organization forms of chemical industry, automobile industry and photovoltaic industry in Germany based on spatial econometric models. The established theories argue that the technological characteristics of heavy-chemical industry and the feature of innovative cooperation inevitably result in a weak geographical proximity and an enlarging spatial scale. Because technological hierarchy of clustering firms leads to a fundamental change of innovation externalities, geographical proximity is not a necessary condition for innovation and the spatial scale of innovative cooperation enlarges from a cluster to a region. Empirical research on Germany reveals: the spatial arrangement of heavy-chemical industry presents a weakly geographical proximity effect; its spatial configuration is not a traditional cluster but rather an industrial agglomeration zone based on a larger spatial scale; both heavy industry and chemical industry require a location with comprehensive knowledge and general technology diffusion; the core enterprises tend to be far away from others to be a "island" mostly because they have more power over their innovative partners. Our study suggests that there are three ways to promote the innovation and upgrading as well as optimize the spatial arrangement of China's heavy-chemical industry, namely, enhancing the innovation capability in vertical technology diffusion, establishing the general technology alliances in multiple production process, and fostering the innovation collaboration between large industrial zones.

Key words: heavy-chemical industry, cluster, technology innovation, location, Germany