地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (8): 1315-1328.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201608003

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西安快速城市化边缘区社会脆弱性评价与影响因素

何艳冰1,2(), 黄晓军1(), 翟令鑫1, 闫倩1, 杨新军1   

  1. 1. 西北大学城市与环境学院,西安 710127
    2. 河南理工大学建筑与艺术设计学院,焦作 454000
  • 收稿日期:2015-09-28 修回日期:2015-11-30 出版日期:2016-08-25 发布日期:2016-08-30
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:何艳冰(1983-), 女, 河南新乡人, 博士生, 讲师, 国家注册城市规划师, 主要从事人地关系脆弱性研究。E-mail: heyanbing2008@hpu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41401138, 41571163);教育部人文社科研究项目(12YJC790072);陕西省自然科学基金项目(2014JQ5195)

Assessment and influencing factors of social vulnerability to rapid urbanization in urban fringe: A case study of Xi'an

Yanbing HE1,2(), Xiaojun HUANG1(), Lingxin ZHAI1, Qian YAN1, Xinjun YANG1   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northwest University, Xi’an 710127, China
    2. School of Architectural and Artistic Design, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, Henan, China
  • Received:2015-09-28 Revised:2015-11-30 Online:2016-08-25 Published:2016-08-30
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41401138, No.41571163;Humanity and Social Science Foundation of Ministry of Education of China, No.12YJC790072;Shaanxi Natural Science Foundation, No.2014JQ5195

摘要:

脆弱性理论是分析人地相互作用程度、机理与过程的重要工具,为可持续性评估研究提供了新的视角。将社会脆弱性工具应用到城市边缘区研究中,视快速城市化为主要干扰,选取西安城市边缘区所辖街道为基本单元,从暴露度、敏感性、适应能力3方面构建社会脆弱性评价框架与指标体系,综合运用熵值法、函数模型法以及遥感与地理信息系统技术对社会脆弱性程度进行评价,揭示社会脆弱性空间分异格局,探究社会脆弱性关键影响因素及其影响机制。结果表明:① 西安城市边缘区的暴露度格局呈现出自中心向外围渐趋减缓的特征;敏感性程度的高、低分布与暴露度的低、高分布在空间上具有相似性;适应能力的空间规律性不明显;② 社会脆弱性空间分布不均衡,以中、低等级为主,低等级街道分布在城市内边缘区,中等级街道分散在城市外边缘区;③ 建设用地面积比重等8个因子对社会脆弱性有重要影响,土地利用方式与景观格局的变化以及物质与社会发展的不平衡是城市边缘区社会脆弱性形成的主要原因,社会系统体制转换阶段的差异进一步加剧了社会脆弱性;④ 城市边缘区应通过优化系统内部结构和功能以适应城市化的扰动,包括制定适应性管理政策和加强城市边缘区社会适应能力建设。

关键词: 城市化, 土地利用, 社会脆弱性, 适应, 城市边缘区, 西安

Abstract:

Vulnerability theory is an important tool to analyze the degree, mechanism and process of interaction between human and environment, which provides a new perspective for the research of sustainability assessment. Applying the tool of social vulnerability to studies of urban fringe, we consider that rapid urbanization is the major disturbance to social system of urban fringe. Taking Xi'an as an example and selecting 25 subdistricts in Xi'an urban fringe in 2013 as the basic units, this paper constructs an evaluation framework and index system of social vulnerability in urban fringe from the perspectives of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. By using entropy method, function model and combining with Fragstats software, remote sensing and geographic information system technology, this paper reveals the spatial differentiation pattern and key influencing factors of social vulnerability in Xi'an urban fringe. The results are shown as follows: (1) The exposure pattern of Xi'an urban fringe is gradually slowing down from the center, and the distance from the fringe to the center of the city has a prominent effect on the spatial distribution of exposure. High sensitivity and low exposure, as well as low sensitivity and high exposure have similar characteristics in spatial terms. Affected by non-spatial factors, the spatial regularity of adaptive capacity is not obvious, which is mainly affected by urbanization on the time scale. (2) The degree of social vulnerability and its spatial distribution are imbalanced, and the social vulnerability indexes are dominated by middle and low levels. The units of low social vulnerability indexes are distributed in the inner of urban fringe, while the units of middle social vulnerability indexes are dispersed in the periphery of urban fringe. (3) There are eight factors, including proportion of construction land, having important impacts on the social vulnerability. The change of land use pattern and landscape, as well as the imbalance of material and social development in urban fringe are the main factors. Moreover, the discrepancy of social transformation of different subdistricts in urban fringe exacerbates social vulnerability. (4) To adapt to the disturbance, urban fringe should optimize the internal structure and function of the social system by establishing adaptive management strategies and strengthening the adaptive capacity.

Key words: urbanization, land use, social vulnerability, adaptation, urban fringe, Xi'an