地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (7): 1241-1254.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201607012

• 地貌 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江三峡水坝下游河道悬沙恢复和床沙补给机制

杨云平1,2(), 张明进1, 李义天2, 张为2, 由星莹2,3, 朱玲玲4, 王冬5   

  1. 1. 交通运输部天津水运工程科学研究所 工程泥沙交通运输行业重点实验室,天津 300456
    2. 武汉大学水资源与水电工程科学国家重点实验室,武汉 430072
    3. 湖北省水利水电规划勘测设计院,武汉 430064
    4. 长江水利委员会水文局,武汉 430010
    5. 长江科学院,武汉 430010
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-20 修回日期:2016-03-15 出版日期:2016-07-25 发布日期:2016-07-27
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杨云平(1985-), 男, 黑龙江绥化人, 助理研究员, 主要从事水库下游水沙输移、地貌调整及河口海岸演变等研究。E-mail:yangsan520_521@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(51579123, 51479146, 51509012);“十二五”国家科技支撑计划(2013BAB12B01);三峡—葛洲坝枢纽坝下砂卵石河段(宜昌至昌门溪)航道治理关键技术研究(TKS05115018)

Suspended sediment recovery and bedsand compensation mechanism affected by the Three Gorges Project

Yunping YANG1(), Mingjin ZHANG1, Yitian LI2, Wei ZHANG2, Xingying YOU2,3, Lingling ZHU4, Dong WANG5   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Engineering Sediment, Tianjin Research Institute for Water Transport Engineering, Ministry of Transport, Tianjin 300456, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
    3. Hubei Provincial Water Resources and Hydropower Planning Survey and Design Institute, Wuhan 430064, China
    4. Bureau of Hydrology, Changjiang Water Resources Commission, Wuhan 430010, China
    5. Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute, Wuhan 430010, China
  • Received:2015-11-20 Revised:2016-03-15 Online:2016-07-25 Published:2016-07-27
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.51579123, No.51479146, No.51509012;The National Key Research & Development Programs, No.2013BAB12B01;Research on Key Techniques of Channel Regulation in The Sand-Gravel Reach (Yichang to Changmenxi) Downstream The Three Gorges-Gezhouba Projects, No.TKS05115018

摘要:

流域水库工程的修建,将改变坝下游原有的水沙输移过程,三峡水库蓄水作用对坝下游水沙输移的影响已初步显现。具体表现为:① 三峡水库坝下游洪水持续时间和流量被削减,下泄沙量大幅减少,沿程上输沙量虽得到一定恢复,但总量仍未超过蓄水前多年均值;② 2003-2014年d > 0.125 mm(粗)输沙量得到一定恢复,至监利站恢复程度最大,基本达到蓄水前均值,在恢复后其下游该组分泥沙冲淤特性与蓄水前一致,其中2008-2014年恢复程度弱于2003-2007年;③ 三峡水库蓄水后坝下游d < 0.125 mm(细)输沙量沿程上得到一定程度恢复,但总量仍小于蓄水前均值;④ 三峡水库蓄水后坝下游d > 0.125 mm泥沙输移量因河床补给作用,沿程上得到恢复,但补给量将不超过0.44亿t/y,主要受制于洪水持续时间及流量均值,而上游干流、河段间支流和湖泊分汇作用占次要地位,而d < 0.125 mm悬沙恢复受上游干流、区间支流和湖泊分汇及河床补给控制,因河床粗化使得床沙对细颗粒悬沙的补给作用减弱;⑤ 2003-2007年和2008-2014年两时段间宜昌至枝城、上荆江为粗细均冲,下荆江为淤粗冲细,汉口至大通河段为淤粗冲细,城陵矶至汉口河段2003-2007年为淤粗冲细,2008-2014年为粗细均冲,这一差异受控于螺山站洪水流量持续时间和量值。

关键词: 泥沙恢复, 床沙补给, 三峡水库, 长江中下游

Abstract:

Construction of basin reservoir projects can change the water and sediment transport processes in the lower reaches. The effects of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) on water and sediment transport in lower reaches are emerging. Specifically: (1) The duration and volume of floods in the lower reaches of TGP declined sharply. The sediment value was of such a low concentration that the water was nearly clear. The suspended sediment discharge gradually recovered downwards but its total amount still could not outcompete the annual average of that before the impoundment of TGP. (2) The sediment with d > 0.125 mm recovered to some extent in 2003-2014 (more in 2003-2007 than in 2008-2014) and basically recovered to the average value before the impoundment at the Jianli Station. After recovery, its transport trend in the lower reaches was in line with that before the impoundment. (3) After the impoundment, sediment with d < 0.125 mm recovered to some extent but its total amount was still less than the average of before the impoundment. (4) The recovery of sediment with d > 0.125 mm was mainly from river-bed erosion but with an amount not exceeding 44 million t/y which was primarily limited by duration and average flow of floods and secondarily by the upper mainstream, tributaries between river sections and the sub-sink effects of lakes. Recovery of the suspended sediment with d < 0.125 mm was controlled by the upper mainstream, tributaries between river sections, the sub-sinks of lakes and river-bed compensation. The suspended sediment compensation from river-bed decreased due to the coarsening of bedsands. (4) In 2003-2007 and 2008-2014, both coarse and fine sands were eroded in the Yichang-Zhicheng section in the upper Jingjiang River while coarse sands deposited and fine sands eroded in the lower Jingjiang River. In the Hankou-Datong section, coarse sands deposited and fine sands eroded. From 2003 to 2007, coarse sands deposited while fine sands eroded in the Chenglingji-Hankou section. In 2008-2014, both coarse and fine sands eroded in the Chenglingji-Hankou section. The differences were caused by the duration and volume of the floods in the Luoshan Station.

Key words: sediment recovery, bedsand compensation, Three Gorges Reservoir, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River