地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (7): 1231-1240.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201607011

• 生态与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原海拔4000 m区域人类活动的新证据

侯光良1(), 曹广超1, 鄂崇毅1, 任晓燕2, 李凡1   

  1. 1. 青海师范大学 青藏高原环境与资源教育部重点实验室,西宁 810008
    2. 青海省文物考古研究所,西宁 810001
    3. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210093
  • 收稿日期:2015-08-03 修回日期:2015-12-08 出版日期:2016-07-25 发布日期:2016-07-27
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:侯光良(1972-), 男, 教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110007894M), 主要从事环境演变与人类活动研究。E-mail:hgl20@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41550001);青海省重点实验室发展专项—青海省自然地理与环境过程重点实验室(2014-Z-Y24, 2015-Z-Y01)

New evidence of human activities at an altitude of 4000 meters area of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Guangliang HOU1(), Guangchao CAO1, Chongyi E1, Xiaoyan REN2, B Wuennemann3, Fan LI1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Physical Geography and Environmental Processes of Qinghai Province, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008, China
    2. Qinghai Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Xining 810007, China
    3. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093,China
  • Received:2015-08-03 Revised:2015-12-08 Online:2016-07-25 Published:2016-07-27
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.441550001;Special Project of Key Laboratory of Qinghai Province-Key Laboratory of Physical Geography and Environmental Processes of Qinghai Province, No.2014-Z-Y24, No.2015-Z-Y01

摘要:

青藏高原早期人类活动对于研究人类对极端环境响应与适应至关重要,4000 m海拔区域是人类向高原腹地迁移与扩散的关键。下大武1号遗址(XDW1)发现了11290±69 cal. a BP人类活动遗留的灰烬层,及其年代主要集中在11.2 cal. ka BP的细石叶、石片等石制品,是目前青藏高原4000 m海拔区域发现的最早的人类活动证据之一,说明在全新世伊始,人类就已经登上了海拔4000 m的青藏高原主体。据此推测人类在高原东北部扩张的时空演变过程,末次冰消期人类在海拔3000~4000 m高原东北缘青海湖盆地、共和盆地等区域活动,全新世初期扩张至4000 m海拔高原主体,全新世大暖期向高原腹地深入;上述3个人类活动阶段与末次冰消期环境的改善、全新世伊始的气候迅速转暖和全新世暖期盛期的到来等重大气候变化阶段密切相关。

关键词: 全新世早期, 青藏高原, 人类活动

Abstract:

Human activities during the early stage in Tibetan Plateau are crucial to improve the knowledge about how human beings react and respond to extreme environmental conditions, especially those in the area with elevation > 4000 m asl, which is considered as the key of the migration and diffusion of human from plain to hinterland. Ash layer dated as 11290±69 cal. a BP and stoneworks such as micro-blade and fine flake mainly occurring at ca.11.2 cal ka BP were found in the archaeological site XDW1, which can be considered as the first evidence to show the human activities above 4000 m asl in the Tibetan Plateau. This study indicates that human beings have migrated to hinterland in the early Holocene, and evaluated the spacial and temporary population diffusion patterns in northeastern Tibetan Plateau: (1) human beings dominated the marginal regions with 3000-4000 m asl in northeastern Tibetan Platean, such as Qinghai Lake Basin and Gonghe Basin during the Last Deglaciation. (2) They expanded to the regions above 4000 m asl during the Early Holocene. (3) People diffused toward hinterland with higher elevation during the Holocene Climatic Optimum. The three stages of human migration and diffusion in the Tibetan Plateau are closely related to the improving climate conditions from the Last Deglaciation until the Holocene Climatic Optimum.

Key words: early Holocene, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, human activity