地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (7): 1201-1214.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201607009

• 生态与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

生计多样化背景下种植业非点源污染负荷演变

钟建兵1(), 邵景安1,2(), 杨玉竹1   

  1. 1. 重庆师范大学地理与旅游学院,重庆 400047
    2. 三峡库区地表过程与环境遥感重庆市重点实验室,重庆 400047
  • 收稿日期:2015-08-17 修回日期:2016-02-20 出版日期:2016-07-25 发布日期:2016-07-27
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:钟建兵(1989-), 男, 重庆人, 硕士, 主要从事资源环境与景观生态相关研究。E-mail:zhong_jb@sohu.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2012ZX07104-003)

Characteristics of non-point source pollution load of crop farming undergoing the background of livelihood diversification

Jianbing ZHONG1(), Jing'an SHAO1,2(), Yuzhu YANG1   

  1. 1. College of Geographical and Tourism, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Surface Process and Environment Remote Sensing in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, Chongqing 400047, China
  • Received:2015-08-17 Revised:2016-02-20 Online:2016-07-25 Published:2016-07-27
  • Supported by:
    Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment, No.2012ZX07104-003

摘要:

依托三峡库区典型村农户访谈数据,基于收益最大目标决策框架,设定农村转型发展中3种农户生计类型情景:农业主导生计、兼业转向生计和非农主导生计,解析种植业产污负荷随主导生计非农转向的演变特征,探讨主导生计类型转向的动力机制。结果表明:① 样区耕地经营现状呈自耕、流转与撂荒并存的多元化发展格局,且表现出“入”小于“出”的特征,不同农户家庭类型间实际人均耕种规模为“半劳动力家庭”>“无劳动力家庭”>“劳动力家庭”;② 种植业单位面积产污负荷中,“半劳动力家庭”最高,“劳动力家庭”次之,“无劳动力家庭”最低,“劳动力家庭”内部又随劳动力人数增加呈先增再减趋势;③ 样区农户生计类型由农业主导向非农主导转型过程中,种植业产污负荷最大减幅达72.01%,兼业转向生计情景下削减幅度为19.61%~29.85%,非农主导生计情景下减幅为35.20%~72.01%,但TN、TP的减量特征并不一致;④ 劳动力配置与生计来源“非农化”促使农户主导生计类型向非农转化,生计非农演变的潜在农户收入/福祉权衡亦驱使生计决策转向非农化,不同农户家庭类型对生计转向的敏感程度表现为“劳动力家庭”>“半劳动力家庭”>“无劳动力家庭”;⑤ 在新型城镇化快速推进和创新新型工业体系构建过程中,山区农户生计类型进一步向非农转变,而这一过程又将促使种植业产生的污染负荷量进一步减少,要大幅削减种植业产污负荷,就必须制定有助于山区农户生计非农化的调控对策。

关键词: 农户生计, 种植业, 非点源污染, 演变, 三峡库区

Abstract:

Based on objective data collected from interviews in typical villages of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, this study presents three livelihood scenarios related to rural transformation development: agriculturally dominant livelihood, multiple-type livelihood and non-agriculturally dominant livelihood. Results indicated the following: (1) The current farmland pattern shows a trend of diversification as self-cultivation, cropland transfer and fallow in the sample region. Dynamic characteristics of cultivated land present a special feature that is more "transfer-into" than "transfer-out". Various scales of planting are represented among various households, according to the following decreasing order: half-labor household > non-labor household > adequate labor household. (2) The highest pollution loading produced by crop farming occurs in half-labor households while the lowest occurs in non-labor households. With the increase of labor, the pollution load per unit area tends to first increase and then decrease within families with enough labor. (3) As the type of livelihood transitions from agriculturally dominant to non-agriculturally dominant, the maximum reduction of total pollution loading produced by the agricultural industry can reach 72.01%. Compared to agriculturally dominant livelihoods, multiple-type livelihoods produce a pollution load reduction yield of 19.61%-29.85%, and non-agriculturally dominant livelihoods reduce the pollution load yield by 35.20%-72.01%. However, the rate of reduction of total nitrogen is not the same as total phosphorus. (4) The non-agricultural characteristics of labor allocation and income promote the transformation from dominant livelihood types to non-agricultural livelihoods, and potential revenue conversion follows a similar trend. In addition, different household types do not display identical conversion rates, according to the following decreasing order: enough labor household > half-labor household > non-labor household. (5) During rapid urbanization and the building of new industrial systems, the livelihood types of rural households have been further transformed to non-agricultural household types in the mountainous region; this process will lead to the further reduction of pollution load generated by planting and agriculture.

Key words: livelihood, crop farming, non-point source pollution, evolution, Three Gorges Reservoir area