地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (7): 1157-1171.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201607006

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于土地利用/覆被变化表征的现代绿洲演变过程——以天山北坡三工河流域为例

张琪1,2(), 罗格平1(), 李龙辉1, 张苗1,2, 吕娜娜1,3, 王新新1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室,乌鲁木齐 830011
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院,乌鲁木齐 830046
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-20 修回日期:2016-03-20 出版日期:2016-07-25 发布日期:2016-07-27
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张琪(1991-), 女, 新疆乌鲁木齐人, 硕士, 主要从事土地利用/土地覆被变化、遥感与GIS应用研究。E-mail:zhangqi_91@foxmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金-新疆联合基金项目(U1303382);973计划前期研究专项(2014CB460603);绿洲荒漠国家重点实验室自主课题(Y471163)

Modern oasis evolution analysis based on land-use and land-cover change: A case study in Sangong River Basin on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains

Qi ZHANG1,2(), Geping LUO1(), Longhui LI1, Miao ZHANG1,2, Nana LV1,3, Xinxin WANG1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China
  • Received:2016-01-20 Revised:2016-03-20 Online:2016-07-25 Published:2016-07-27
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.U1303382;The National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program), No.2014CB460603;The Project of State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, No.Y471163]

摘要:

本文以天山北坡三工河流域为例,利用1958年、1968年和1978年3期航片、1987年彩红外航片、1998年Landsat TM、2004年SPOT 5和2014年Landsat OLI影像,构建绿洲及其外围荒漠7期土地利用/土地覆被数据集,综合分析1950s屯垦戍边以来现代绿洲演变和外围荒漠植物群落变化。结果表明:①1950年以来,屯垦戍边使位于三工河冲洪积扇中下部的老绿洲不断向冲积平原扩张,老绿洲外围以柽柳和梭梭为建群种的土质荒漠景观不断转变为新绿洲,绿洲面积增加了4倍多。其中1958-1968年和2000s以来是绿洲变化最为显著的两个阶段,这两个阶段分别对应了农业用地和建设用地增幅最大的时期。② 三工河流域的现代绿洲演变过程中存在“地方管辖区”和“兵团农场区”两种基本管理模式,也正是这两种模式相互渗透、相互交叉融合,共同推动了现代绿洲演变。③三工河流域1950s-2004年现代绿洲演变具有干旱区绿洲演变的普遍特征,但2004年以后的演变仅适用于有较大规模跨流域调水或新增水源的绿洲演变情形。现代绿洲的扩张以荒漠植被的砍伐和破坏为代价,导致绿洲外围植物群落结构发生了显著的变化,这使得绿洲外围荒漠生态系统的保护愈加困难

关键词: 绿洲, 土地利用/土地覆被变化, 荒漠植物群落, 三工河

Abstract:

The evaluation of land-use/land-cover changes (LUCC) in the arid region was scarcely quantified before the 1980s due to the unavailability of satellite data, resulting in our little knowledge of the effects of LUCC on climate change and carbon/water cycle in that period. In this study, we investigated the evolution of oases in Sangong river basin since the 1950s by using seven land cover maps derived from black-and-white aerial photographs (1958, 1968 and 1978), color-infrared aerial photograph (1987), Landsat TM imagery (1998), SPOT (2004) and Landsat OLI images (2014). Results show that: (1) Since 1950, the new oasis consecutively expanded more than four times towards the bottom of the alluvial plain, causing a huge shrinking of the desert landscapes dominated by haloxylon community and tamarix community. Furthermore, agricultural land had the most rapid expansion during the period of 1958-1968 and built-up areas showed the fastest expansion after the 2000s. (2) Two basic management modes, "local mode" formed by the local governments and "farm management mode" developed by Xinjiang Production and Construction Group, have jointly caused oasis evolution in various LUCC stages. (3) The evolution of modern oasis from the 1950s to 2004 shows the common features of driest oasis area while the period 2004-2014 is characterized by large-scale inter-basin water diversion or some new water sources. (4) The modern oasis expands at the expense of the destruction of desert vegetation, resulting in distinct variation of structure of desert plant community, which will increase the difficulty to protect desert ecosystem.

Key words: oasis, land-use and land-cover change, desert plant community, Sangong River