地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (7): 1094-1104.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201607001

• 模拟研究 •    下一篇

水文循环模拟中下垫面参数化方法综述

赵玲玲1,2, 刘昌明2,3, 吴潇潇4(), 刘丽红4, 王中根2, 苏磊5   

  1. 1. 广州地理研究所 广东省地理空间信息技术与应用公共实验室,广州 510070
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室,北京 100101
    3. 北京师范大学水科学研究院,北京 100875
    4. 安徽理工大学地球与环境学院,淮南 232001
    5. 波兰亚当密茨凯维支大学自然地理与环境规划学院,波兹南 61-608
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-08 修回日期:2016-03-28 出版日期:2016-07-25 发布日期:2016-07-27
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:湛东升(1987-), 男, 安徽寿县人, 博士, 研究方向为城市地理。E-mail: zhands@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41501046);广东省水利科技创新项目(2014-14, 2016-14);广东省自然科学基金项目(2015A030310234);广东省科学院优秀青年科技人才基金项目(rcjj201303);广东省科学院平台环境与能力建设专项资金项目(2016GDASPT-0210, 2016GDASPT-0301);The Scientific Platform and Innovation Capability Construction Program of GDAS, No.2016GDASPT-0210,No.2016GDASPT-0301

A review of underlying surface parametrization methods in hydrologic models

Lingling ZHAO1,2, Changming LIU2,3, Xiaoxiao WU4(), Lihong LIU4, Zhonggen WANG2, SOBKOWIAK Leszek5   

  1. 1. Guangdong Open Laboratory of Geospatial Information Technology and Application, Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510070, China
    2. Key Laboratory ofWater Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    4. Department of Earch and Entironment, Anhui University of Science & Technology, Huainan 232001, Anhui, China
    5. Institute of Physical Geography and Environmental Planning, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan 61-608, Poland
  • Received:2015-11-08 Revised:2016-03-28 Online:2016-07-25 Published:2016-07-27
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41501046;Water Conservancy Science and Technology Innovation Project of Guangdong Provincial Water Resources Department, No.2014-14, No.2016-14;Natural Fund of Guangdong Province, No.2015A030310234;Youth Talent Fund of Guangdong Academy of Sciences, No.rcjj201303

摘要:

针对水文循环模拟中地形、土地利用覆被等流域下垫面参数化方法众多,且模拟效果相差较大的现状。本文首先根据水文循环模拟中产汇流原理,对常用水文循环模拟中产汇流模拟方法进行汇总和分类;在此基础上,对产流模拟中的降水径流相关系数法、蓄满产流和超渗产流等及汇流模拟中的等流时线、单位线、圣维南方程、马斯京根法等主要模拟方法中地形、土地利用覆被和土壤类型参数化方法进行分析和讨论;根据其中流域地形、土地利用覆被和土壤类型参数化方法对机理过程的描述程度,将其分为无明确表示类、率定型参数类、确定型参数类、物理过程表达类;进而阐明不同参数化方法中流域地形、土地利用覆被和土壤类型对水文循环模拟结果的响应和贡献。最后回归模型本质,阐述水文循环模拟中流域下垫面参数化方法中存在经验关系对复杂机理简单表述的合理性和物理机理过程描述的欠缺性问题,并预估未来水文循环模拟中下垫面参数化方法朝着简洁实用化和复杂机理化两个方向发展。

关键词: 水文循环模拟, 流域地形, 土地利用覆被, 流域特征, 参数化方法

Abstract:

In this paper, firstly, in accordance with the principles of the hydrologic cycle simulation, methods commonly used in the runoff yield simulation were analyzed. On this basis, the rainfall-runoff coefficient of correlation, the storage-full runoff and the runoff yield under excess infiltration applied in the runoff simulations, as well as the methods of isochronic hydrograph, unit hydrograph, the Saint-Venant equations, the Muskingum method applied in the flow concentration simulations, and also parametrization methods of topography, land cover, land use and soil type applied in major simulation methods were analyzed and discussed. In addition, the degree of description of the simulation process mechanism by these parametrization methods of watershed topography, land cover, land use and soil types was discussed and the parametrization methods were divided into different categories, namely: the not clearly expressed category, the rating parameters category, the deterministic parameters category and the expressed by physical processes category. Furthermore, the influence of the applied in different parametrization methods topography, land cover, land use and soil types on the hydrologic cycle simulation results was clarified. Finally, returning to the hydrologic models nature, major drawbacks of the simplified description of complex rational and physical mechanisms existing in the underlying surface parametrization methods in hydrologic models were outlined, and also two directions in the future development of those methods in the hydrologic cycle simulations were discussed.

Key words: hydrologic cycle simulation, watershed topography, land use, land cover, soil type, watershed characteristics, parametrization