地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (4): 649-665.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201604009

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全球化背景下在华韩国人族裔聚居区的形成与发展演变——以北京望京为例

周雯婷, 刘云刚, 全志英   

  1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广州510275
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-13 发布日期:2020-05-22
  • 作者简介:周雯婷(1986-), 女, 广东茂名人, 博士, 主要研究方向为城市地理学、社会地理学、跨国移民。E-mail: zhouwentinghai@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571130, 41271165, 41130747); 教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金(12YJAGJW007)

Making, development and transformation of South Korean Enclave in China: A case study ofWangjing, Beijing

ZHOUWenting, LIU Yungang, JEON Jiyoung   

  1. School of Geography and Planning, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation,SUN Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275, China
  • Received:2015-07-13 Online:2020-05-22
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41571130, No.41271165, No.41130747;The MOE Layout Foundation of Humanities and Social Sciences, No.12YJAGJW007]

摘要: 随着近年的经济高速增长,中国已成为仅次于美国、日本的第三大韩国人移居地。在此背景下,运用实地调查和访谈方法,以北京望京为例,分析在华韩国人居住区及其族裔经济的形成与发展演变过程。北京望京是迄今为止在华韩国人聚集规模最大的社区,其以1998 年、2003 年为节点,经历了从花家地北移到望京西园,进而以望京西园为中心向外扩张的发展扩散过程。伴随着韩国人居住范围的扩大,面向韩国人的族裔经济也应运而生。当地的韩国人族裔经济多为韩国人和中国朝鲜族共同经营,以自我服务为主,已形成覆盖生产生活各方面的经济体系。相比中国国内的其他族裔聚居区,望京韩国人聚居区由于中国朝鲜族的参与,形成了主动融入、隐性隔离的特征,而这也为北京的移民管理和国际化城市建设带来了新挑战。

关键词: 族裔聚居区, 族裔经济, 隐性隔离, 韩国人, 望京, 北京

Abstract: Against the context of high-speed economic growth in China, the number of South Koreans who have expatriated to China soared over the last decade. This increase has made China the third largest destination for South Korean Transmigrants (SKTs) among all nations, following only USA and Japan. In particular, Beijing has become the most popular destination among the Chinese cities, with 74025 SKTs in 2013. As such, this study sheds light on Wangjing, Beijing, which is taken as a case to examine the making, development and transformation of South Korean enclaves in China. Wangjing, the largest South Korean enclave in China, has attracted widespread attention from scholars of China and South Korea. Based on first-hand data gathered from onsite surveys and interviews conducted in December 2014 and March 2015, we found that Wangjing began to expand northward from Huajiadi to Wangjing Xiyuan in 1998 and expanded further when Wangjing Xiyuan was created in 2003. Since many Korean students and their families lived in Huajiadi before 2003, the making of this enclave is an ongoing process. The SKTs of various backgrounds have clustered in Wangjing Xiyuan since 2003 and include not only students but also overseas businessmen, self-employed people and locally hired people. The economy within the enclave has emerged and developed along with the expansion of the Wangjing territory. Businesses within the enclave are mainly coowned and co- operated by SKTs and people who are Korean- Chinese and are dominated by daily services provided to each other. Compared to the enclaves of other foreigners in China, Wangjing is marked by the participation of Korean-Chinese people. Moreover, because they are living in the same community with ordinary local residents, it may be possible to integrate SKTs into the local society. However, most SKTs still remain segregated from Korean-Chinese or other Chinese people. The current status of the Wangjing South Korean enclave creates challenges for urban management as well as for furthering the role of Beijing as a model international megalopolis in China.

Key words: ethnic enclave, ethnic economy, segregation, South Korean Transmigrants, Wangjing, Beijing