地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (4): 605-620.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201604006

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直航背景下海峡两岸集装箱港口体系空间结构——基于复杂网络的视角

王列辉1,2, 洪彦1,2   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,上海200062;
    2. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海200241
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-07 发布日期:2020-05-22
  • 通讯作者: 洪彦(1990-), 女, 福建厦门人, 硕士, 主要从事交通运输地理学研究。E-mail: hyqiqi0113@163.com
  • 作者简介:王列辉(1978-), 男, 浙江慈溪人, 博士, 副教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110008083M), 主要从事交通运输地理学研究。E-mail: lhwang@re.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371140); 上海市哲学社会科学规划项目(2012ECK001)

Spatial structure of container port systems across the Taiwan Straits under the direct shipping policy:A complex network system approach

WANG Liehui1,2, HONG Yan1,2   

  1. 1. The Modern Urban Research Center of China, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China;
    2. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2015-04-07 Published:2020-05-22
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41371140; The Philosophy and Social Science Planning Project of Shanghai, No.2012ECK001]

摘要: 自1997 年以来,两岸集装箱港口体系在“间接通航”、“试点直航”以及“全面直航”特殊政策的影响下,先后经历了直航萌芽期、直航发展期及直航成熟期三个阶段。以国家交通部发布的台湾海峡两岸集装箱海上运输航线为主干数据,基于复杂网络的分析视角,利用网络分析软件GEPHI和GIS技术,对直航背景下海峡两岸集装箱港口体系空间联系格局、中心性空间分异和区域集散效应的演化特征进行定量测度,并进一步探究两岸集装箱港口体系空间结构演化的动力机制。结果表明:① 两岸集装箱港口体系空间结构总体呈现“特定转运港集中—枢纽港集中—区域网络化发展”的三阶段演变过程,主要表现为航线联系范围的扩大和干线权重的减弱,中心性功能在枢纽港弱化、在次级港口增强,以及新兴小型港口呈现“小世界”区域集聚的现象,体现了重要的复杂网络特性。② 两岸直航前,港口区域集聚性主要分布于珠三角及环渤海地区,两岸直航后,区域集聚现象主要分布于珠三角地区与海峡西岸经济区。③ 两岸航运网络的空间演化机制受制度、市场及技术三方面因素共同驱动,特殊的通航政策是港口体系形 成、演化的重要社会制度环境,两岸经贸联系和ECFA的全面推进在很大程度上重塑了中国沿海四大经济区主要港口与台湾港口间的航运联系,而基于技术革新的港口竞争机制影响了两岸航运企业的航线配置。

关键词: 两岸直航, 集装箱港口体系, 空间演化, 复杂网络

Abstract: Since 1997, the cross- strait shipping policy between the mainland of China and Taiwan has evolved from indirect shipping, through piloting direct shipping to direct shipping.Such policy changes have transformed the cross- strait container port system which hasexperienced three phases of change: initial growth, rapid growth, and mature growth. Based onthe cross- strait shipment route data released by the State Department of Transportation, thisstudy measures and characterizes the evolving features of the cross-strait container port system,including its spatial connectivity, differentiation of geographic centricity, and regionalagglomeration. It further attempts to reveal the dynamic mechanism of spatial structural change of this port system under the direct shipping policy. From a complex network system perspective, the study employs tools of GEPHI software and GIS in the empirical analysis of container port system. The findings of the study are as follows. First, the spatial pattern of the cross- strait container port system is associated with three stages of evolutionary processes: aggregation of special trans- shipment ports, concentration of hub ports and development of regional port network. The changing process of the system can be characterized as the expanding scale of shipping connectivity, the weakening share weight of dominant shipping lines, and the reducing centrality of hub ports. The increasing centrality of the secondary ports and emerging clustering of small ports prompt the appearance of so- called‘Small- world’phenomenon of regional port agglomeration. Second, before the implementation of the direct shipping policy, the regional port clusters were mainly distributed in the Pearl River Delta and the Bohai Rim Region. After its implementation, the port clusters moved towards the West Coast Economic Zone while they remained in the Pearl River Delta. Third, the spatial evolution of cross-strait shipping network is driven by institutions, markets and technology. The special policy of direct shipping across the Strait has created an important social institution for the formation and evolution of a new port system. The enhanced cross-strait trade relations and the positive promotion of Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (ECFA) have largely reshape the shipping linkages between the ports in four coastal economic zones in the mainland of China and the ports in Taiwan. Besides, the port competition mechanism induced by technical innovation can affect the arrangement of shipment routing by shipping companies across the Taiwan Strait.

Key words: crossstrait direct shipping, container port system, spatial evolution, complexnetwork