地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (2): 194-.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201602002

• 人口与政治地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国人口城镇化质量评价及省际差异分析

薛德升(), 曾献君   

  1. 中山大学城市与区域研究中,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2015-03-09 修回日期:2015-07-24 出版日期:2016-02-15 发布日期:2016-03-31
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:薛德升(1969-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110004311M), 主要研究方向为城市地理.E-mail: eesxds@mail.sysu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41130747);国际与地区合作项目(41320104001)

Evaluation of China's urbanization quality and analysis of its spatial pattern transformation based on the modern life index

Desheng XUE(), Xianjun ZENG   

  1. Center for Urban and Regional Studies, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2015-03-09 Revised:2015-07-24 Online:2016-02-15 Published:2016-03-31
  • Supported by:
    Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41130747;International Joint Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41320104001

摘要:

新型城镇化是中国的重要国策,对人的城镇(市)化的科学评价是正确认识城镇化和制定相关政策的重要基础.目前城--乡二元分析框架下的以城镇化率和城镇(或区域)城镇化质量为主的评价方法,难以反映城镇化过程中社会结构的变化,同时乡村人口的城镇化发展也被忽略.本文提出人口城镇化质量的概念,建立了衡量人口城镇化质量的指标体系.对1995,2000,2005,2010和2012年全国及各省市的城镇人口,乡村人口及总人口的城镇化质量进行了分析.研究发现:① 尽管城镇人口的城镇化速度显著快于乡村人口,但城镇化并非城镇人口独有的社会过程.② 城乡两类人口的城镇化质量在省域尺度上正逐步形成差异明显的空间格局.③ 北京,上海,浙江等少数省市乡村人口的城镇化质量已经超越部分内地省市城镇人口的城镇化质量.建议更新对城镇化的认识和评价标准,探索在城镇化发达的地区调整城--乡二元体制的新途径,促进中国城镇化的健康发展.

关键词: 人口城镇化质量, 城镇化评价, 现代生活指数, 空间差异, 中国

Abstract:

New urbanization is one of China's key national policies. Scientific evaluation focusing upon the human being is the necessary basis of understanding China's recent urbanization and then developing the right policies. There are currently two main evaluation methods of urbanization: the proportion of urban population in a given country or region, and the development of cities and towns in a given region, which are based on the urban-rural dual system. These two methods have deeply reflected the economic and spatial changes than the social restructuring in the course of urbanization, which means the human being as the core of urbanization, particularly those living in the countryside, has not been paid enough attention. Based on the interaction between people's daily activities and urban environment, this paper established a new evaluation system of the population's urbanization quality with 7 modern life indexes, and analyzed the urbanization quality of the urban, rural and the total population at the two levels of the state and 31 provinces. The main findings are: (1) As a social restructuring process, urbanization has not only taken place in the cities and towns, although the urbanization speed in the urban areas is more faster than that in the rural areas. The urbanization quality of both urban and rural population has improved at state and provincial levels since 1995. (2) Two different urbanization spatial patterns of the urban and rural population have formed during the past two decades. The urban population has changed from a low level balance before 1995 to the rise of some provinces in 2000, to the dual structure of East and West in 2005, to the trichotomy of Eastern-Central-Western China after 2010, which is evolving to a higher balanced situation; While the urbanization of rural population has changed from a low level balance before 1995 to the two gradient patterns of Coastal East and Inland Middle and West in recently years. (3) The urbanization quality indexes of rural population in Beijing, Shanghai and Zhejiang Province have exceeded those of urban population in some inland lower urbanized provinces such as Jiangxi, Guizhou, Qinghai and Tibet, which indicates that the urbanization of rural population in the coastal areas is well developed compared with some inland urban areas. So this paper suggests that the evaluation ways and standard of urbanization should be changed, the institutional system of dual urban-rural system should be modified, in order to meet the demand of China's objective need of urbanization.

Key words: level of urbanization, urbanization proportion, urbanization quality, evaluation of urbanization, modern life index