地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (12): 1987-2000.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201512010

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城市化进程中广州城中村传统宗族文化的重构

陶伟1,2(), 程明洋3, 符文颖1   

  1. 1. 华南师范大学地理科学学院,广州 510631
    2. 华南师范大学文化产业与文化地理研究中心,广州 530631
    3. 北京富达尔城市发展研究院,北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2014-12-30 修回日期:2015-09-22 出版日期:2015-12-25 发布日期:2016-01-05
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:陶伟(1971-), 女, 河南平顶山人, 博士, 教授, 主要从事城市形态理论与方法、社会文化地理等方面的研究。E-mail: 748954219@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271178) [Foundation: National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41271178]

Reconstruction of Guangzhou urban villages' traditional lineage culture in the context of rapid urbanization:From spatial form of ancestral hall to behavioral patterns of villagers

Wei TAO1,2(), Mingyang CHENG3, Wenying FU1   

  1. 1. School of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    2. Cultural Industry and Cultural Geography Research Center, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    3. Fdar Consulting Co. Ltd., Beijing 100029, China
  • Received:2014-12-30 Revised:2015-09-22 Online:2015-12-25 Published:2016-01-05

摘要:

祠堂是中国宗族文化的典型代表,在快速城市化进程中,传统的宗族文化经历着重构。以广州城中村猎德、珠村内的祠堂及其所承载的宗族文化为考察对象,运用空间句法理论对两个代表性祠堂的空间形态特征与村民生活及行为模式之间的关系进行阐释后发现:① 祠堂空间作为承载传统宗族文化的“场域”,其空间形态与村民行为模式相互依赖、相互影响。重建后的猎德祠堂为了适应新的功能需求,在空间形态上呈现出与珠村古祠堂明显的差别;② 在转型时期宗族文化的重构体现在祠堂传统的祭祀活动正在逐渐被娱乐活动所取代,休闲和宴席成为村民在祠堂中的主要活动事项,与古祠堂相比,猎德新建祠堂已成为一个面向社会的盈利性场所;③ 作为宗族文化景观的代表,祠堂空间形态演变反映出村民行为模式的改变,正是宗族文化衰退、重构的直观明证;④ 20世纪以后在夫妇制家族时代,村民的宗族意识在逐渐衰退,尤其在快速城市化进程中,当村落整体文化环境及承载传统文化的物质载体发生巨变时这种衰退会加速。对承载传统文化的“场域”和聚落环境的探讨不仅为社会转型期传统文化的保护和城市更新提供了有益启示,也为深层次理解建筑及其环境的“文化基因”提供了参考。

关键词: 快速城市化, 广州城中村, 空间句法, 祠堂, 宗族文化

Abstract:

China is a country with exuberant cultural traditions, yet little of which has been paid attention to in rapidly urbanizing context in contemporary China. Lineage refers to the organized group of descendants of a single ancestor by which the lineage membership is determined. Despite the disappearance of many villages in the city, the ancestral hall often survived as the symbolic tie between the single-lineage villagers. Previous studies on Chinese rural restructuring mainly focus on the societal and cultural consequences. What these two aspects in studies of rural areas tend to vanish, or only take it implicitly, is the spatial processes that is closely related to the societal and cultural restructuring. Therefore, this paper intends to apply the sociological architecture thinking in space syntax methodology to explore the social logic behind the transforming spatial character of the typical lineage architecture, the ancestral hall. Taking two typical ancestral halls located respectively in Liede and Zhucun urban villages in Guangzhou as the research objects, the paper has unfolded the relationship between the morphological characteristics and behavioral patterns of villagers. Through field survey and mapping and face-to-face interviews in the Leide and Zhucun villages, it is found that (1) The newly-built ancestral hall in Liede village shows great difference compared with the old one in Zhucun village owing to the need to adapt to the new social functions, which is embodied in such transformation in spatial form as the breaking of axial symmetry pattern and the declining position of the sacred space in the overall spatial organization; (2) The decline and restructuring of spatial functions and the correspondent spatial organization highly conforms to the waning of the lineage consciousness, in which many traditional sacrificing activities are replaced by entertainment activities, and recreation and feasting have become the primary activities for villagers in the ancestral halls. Compared with the old ancestral halls, the newly-built ones in the central locations, as in our Leide case, evolved into non-excluded space that is aimed at profit-generating in the course of urbanization; (3) As the representative for lineage culture, the evolving spatial morphology of the ancestral halls is the intuitive evidence of lineage culture's recession and reconstruction, reflecting the changing mode of villager behaviors; (4) In the time of the couple made??families after the 20th century, the lineage consciousness of villagers is in the gradual recession, especially when the overall cultural environment for traditions has changed drastically. To sum up, the study not only provides new perspective for studying the traditional architectural type and traditional villages, but also in practical terms gives valuable suggestions to the protection and regeneration of traditional architecture and milieu in the context of rapid urbanization.

Key words: rapid urbanization, Guangzhou urban village, space syntax, ancestral hall, lineage culture