地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (12): 1911-1925.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201512005

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上海和北京城市创新空间结构的时空演化模式

段德忠1,2(), 杜德斌1,2(), 刘承良1,2   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200241
    2. 华东师范大学科技创新与发展战略研究中心,上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-23 修回日期:2015-09-12 出版日期:2015-12-25 发布日期:2015-12-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:段德忠(1989-), 男, 博士, 主要从事创新地理与交通地理研究。E-mail: dezhong_tuan@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471108, 41501141) [Foundation: National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41330747, No.41501141]

Spatial-temporal evolution mode of urban innovation spatial structure: A case study of Shanghai and Beijing

Dezhong DUAN1,2(), Debin DU1,2(), Chengliang LIU1,2   

  1. 1. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
    2. Institute for Innovation and Strategic Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 20062, China
  • Received:2015-06-23 Revised:2015-09-12 Online:2015-12-25 Published:2015-12-25

摘要:

基于城市邮编区划空间数据库,从创新产出的视角建构城市创新评价指标体系,对1991-2014年上海市和北京市的创新空间结构的空间演化模式进行了探讨。研究发现:① 邮政区划为研究城市创新空间结构的生长提供了全新的视角,基于随机边缘点连线以及泰森多边形法构建的城市邮编空间数据库评价城市创新空间结构的结果较为理想,因此具有推广价值;② 25年间,上海市和北京市的创新空间结构生长体现出了诸多的共性特征:随着参与创新的城市空间单元逐年增加,区域创新产出虽总体差距在缩小,但空间集聚趋势在加剧;③ 25年间,上海市和北京市的创新空间结构生长也体现出了共性上的差异性,其中上海市创新空间结构在创新资源郊区化转移的趋势下,呈现出由单核驱动向多核共振演进,以交通干道为空间扩散廊道的辐射效应凸显,相应的,其创新产出空间关联效应也显现出了市中心空心化现象;而北京市创新空间结构始终为市中心单核主导型,并在创新资源不断向中心集聚趋势下,其创新产出空间关联效应呈现出“农村包围城市”的演化特征;④ 上海市和北京市创新空间结构与其所在的区域创新空间结构(长三角城市群和京津冀城市群)具有内在的一致性,表明城内尺度科技创新活动空间分布的均衡与非均衡规律与其所处的区域创新格局密切相关。

关键词: 创新产出, 邮政编码, 时空演化, 集聚扩散, 上海, 北京

Abstract:

In today's world, the innovation of science and technology has become the key support for improving comprehensive national strength, also the strong lead for changing the mode of social production and lifestyle. Which country has world-class scientific and technological innovation cities maximizes the attraction to global innovation factors. Which country maximizes the attraction to global innovation factors wins strategic initiative in international competition. Based on urban ZIP code spatial database, the evaluation system of urban innovation was established in the perspective of innovation output, and the spatial evolutionary mode, which is concerning the structure of innovation space of Shanghai and Beijing from 1991 to 2014, was discussed. The results of the research indicated that ZIP districts provided a fresh perspective to study the growth of spatial structure of urban innovation. And the result, which is of the evaluation of spacial structure of urban innovation using urban ZIP code spatial database established by connecting random edge points and Voronoi, was relatively ideal. So the promotional value exists. During the 25 years, the growth of spatial structure of innovation of Shanghai and Beijing demonstrated a lot of common features: with the increase of urban space units participated in innovation year by year, although the overall gap of regional innovation output has narrowed, the trend of spatial agglomeration has strengthened. The growth of spatial structure of innovation of Shanghai and Beijing demonstrated the differences among common features during the 25 years as well: in the trend of the suburbanization of innovation resources, the spatial structure of innovation of Shanghai indicated that the driver has evolved from the single-core driver to the multi-core resonance evolution. Radiation effect using traffic arteries as spatial diffusion corridors was prominent. Accordingly, the spatial correlation effect of its innovation output also indicated the city center hollowness; the spatial structure of innovation of Beijing was single-core (the city center) oriented structure all the way. In the trend that innovation resources were agglomerated in the center, the spatial correlation effect of innovation output indicated the characteristics of the evolutionary feature where "rural area encircles cities". The spatial structure of innovation of Shanghai and Beijing has intrinsic consistency with the spatial structure of their respective regions (Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration), which suggested that the principle of proportional and disproportional distribution of city-scale pattern of technological and innovational activities is closely related to its regional innovation pattern.

Key words: innovation output, ZIP code, spatial-temporal evolution, agglomeration and dispersion, Shanghai, Beijing