地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (12): 1870-1883.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201512002

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县域聚落分布格局演变分析——基于1929-2013年河南巩义的实证研究

李小建1,2(), 许家伟1, 海贝贝1   

  1. 1. 河南财经政法大学中原经济区“三化”协调发展河南省协同创新中心,郑州 450046
    2. 河南大学环境与规划学院 黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心,开封 475004
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-01 修回日期:2015-09-26 出版日期:2015-12-25 发布日期:2016-01-05
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李小建(1954-), 男, 河南孟津人, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110000223M), 主要从事经济地理学研究。E-mail: xjli@henu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471117);教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(15YJC790121) [Foundation: Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41471117;Humanity and Social Science Youth Foundation of Ministry of Education of China, No.15YJC790121]

The changing distribution patterns of rural settlements during the process of urbanization: The case of Gongyi (1929-2013), China

Xiaojian LI1,2(), Jiawei XU1, Beibei HAI1   

  1. 1. Collaborative Innovation Center of Three-aspect Coordination of Central-China Economic Region, Henan University of Economics and Law, Zhengzhou 450046, China
    2. Collage of Environment and Planning, Key Center of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China
  • Received:2015-07-01 Revised:2015-09-26 Online:2015-12-25 Published:2016-01-05

摘要:

基于河南省巩义市1929-2013年的村庄数据,从位序—规模角度着手,使用齐夫指数、分形维数以及基尼系数,分别测度了近百年来县域聚落分布格局的演变。相对于城市,巩义市聚落等级规模具有如下特征:① 齐夫指数偏小但增长较快。大聚落发育不突出,具有农村聚落特征;但聚落规模越大,规模增加的速度越快,且二次项模型优于线性模型。② 分形维数偏大但降速加快。聚落体系等级差异增加,规模分布趋于集中。县域聚落规模只有增加到一定程度才能与城市表现出同样的规律。③ 聚落规模大小的基尼系数相对较小但增加显著,且增长率在1990s后加速,这与当地的城镇化发展过程具有密切关联。在空间上表现如下特征:① 沿河线状格局变化。核心聚落由“沿河平原线状”格局主导逐渐向“平原—丘陵片状”格局转变。② 网络等级结构形成。高等级聚落数量增加且规模增大,聚落等级增加,最终形成市场原则的5级等级结构。③ 核心聚落转移替代。县城迁移、工业化与城镇化带来聚落位序—规模变化,使核心聚落出现空间改变。

关键词: 聚落体系, 位序—规模, 齐夫指数, 分形维数, 基尼系数, 巩义市

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization undergoing in China has caused, and will continue to cause tremendous changes of rural settlements. Regions at various stages of economic development and with various geographical backgrounds may witness different changing patterns. This paper uses data of rural settlements covering 84 years from 1929 to 2013 in a county-level city -- Gongyi in Henan province, China, to examine whether such changes in a traditional rural area have evolved towards the urban structure. As Gongyi was one of the earliest areas of rural industries in China, its rapid industrial growth since the 1980s has dramatically transformed the traditional characteristics of rural settlements. By employing Zipf's index, fractal dimension and Gini coefficient, and village data in the county, we have found that: first, Zipf's indexes based on village sizes of the past 84 years were generally much smaller than results based on cities, but with higher speed. The larger settlements were less prominent, but increasing fast in past two decades. Second, fractal dimensions were big but delaying. The larger size in the settlements, the faster increase in their population. Third, Gini coefficient was small but significantly increasing, especially accelerating after the 1990s. Fourth, the spatial patterns have gradually changed from linear concentration pattern along the Yiluo River to more balanced patterns over the plain and the hills. The increases in large settlements and their sizes, were forming hierarchy of the central place in market principles. Along with the process of urbanization, centralization of population leads to changing patterns of rural settlements, with the first rank settlement dominating rank size hierarchy in a region.

Key words: rural settlements, urbanization, rank-size, Zipf's index, Gini coefficient, Gongyi