地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (5): 819-827.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201505012

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近50年长三角地区水系时空变化及其驱动机制

韩龙飞1(), 许有鹏1(), 杨柳1, 邓晓军1, 胡春生1,2, 徐光来1,2   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210023
    2. 安徽师范大学国土资源与旅游学院,芜湖 241000
  • 收稿日期:2015-02-11 修回日期:2015-04-12 出版日期:2015-05-20 发布日期:2015-06-11
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:韩龙飞(1988-), 男, 河北磁县人, 博士生, 主要研究方向为水文学与水资源。E-mail: hanlf.nju@gmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371046);水利部公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201201072, 201301075);江苏省自然科学基金(BK20131276)

Temporal and spatial change of stream structure in Yangtze River Delta and its driving forces during 1960s-2010s

Longfei HAN1(), Youpeng XU1(), Liu YANG1, Xiaojun DENG1, Chunsheng HU1,2, Guanglai XU1,2   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
    2. College of Territorial Resources and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, Anhui, China
  • Received:2015-02-11 Revised:2015-04-12 Online:2015-05-20 Published:2015-06-11
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41371046;The Commonwealth and Specialized Program for Scientific Research, Ministry of Water Resources of China, No.201201072, No.201301075;Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, No.BK20131278

摘要:

基于1960s、1980s以及2010s三期1:5万地形图中水系数据,选取河网密度(Dd)、水面率(WSR)、干流面积长度比(R)、支流发育系数(K)和盒维数(D),探讨了长江三角洲地区水系近50年的时空格局及变化特征,并分析了城市化对水系结构的影响。结果表明:① 近50年来,长三角水系河网密度、水面率数量特征呈下降趋势,其中武澄锡虞、杭嘉湖和鄞东南地区河网密度减少近20%;结构特征发生变化,秦淮河流域干流面积长度比增加显著,杭嘉湖地区支流发育系数衰减达46.8%;河网复杂度衰退,武澄锡虞和杭嘉湖地区的盒维数衰减分别达7.8%和6.5%。② 城市化影响水系的空间分布,高度城市化地区河网密度、水面率、支流发育系数以及盒维数最低。③ 城市化深刻改变着水系的演化过程。1960s-2010s期间,高度城市化地区的河网密度、水面率衰减剧烈达27.2%和19.3%,河网主干化趋势加剧,河网复杂度下降4.91%。1980s-2010s期间,低度城市化地区支流衰减达53.3%,河网密度大幅下降14.6%。④ 城镇用地的扩张、水利工程的修建和农田水利活动是改变长三角水系的主要方式。

关键词: 水系结构, 时空变化, 城市化, 长三角地区

Abstract:

Spatial and temporal variations of river systems in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) during the 1960s-2010s were investigated based on streams derived from the topographic map in the 1960s, 1980s and 2010s. A list of indices, drainage density (Dd), water surface ratio (WSR), the ratio of area to length of main river (R), evolution coefficient of branch river (K) and box dimension (D), were classified into three types (quantitative, structural, and complex indices) and used to quantify the variation of stream structure. Results showed that: (1) quantitative indices (Dd, WSR) presented a decreasing trend in the past 50 years, and Dd in Wuchengxiyu, Hangjiahu and Yindongnan decreased by about 20%. Structurally, the Qinhuai river basin was characterized by a significantly upward R, and K value in Hangjiahu went down dramatically by 46.8% during the 1960s-2010s. A decreasing tendency in D was found to dominate the YRD, and decreasing magnitude in Wuchengxiyu and Hangjiahu peaked for 7.8%, and 6.5%, respectively in the YRD. (2) Urbanization affected the spatial pattern of river system, and areas with a high level of urbanization exhibited least Dd (2.18 km/km2), WSR (6.52%), K (2.64) and D (1.42), compared with moderate and low levels of urbanization. (3) Urbanization also affected the evolution of stream system. In the past 50 years, areas with high level of urbanization showed a compelling decreasing tendency in quantitative (27.2% and 19.3%) and complex indices (4.9%) and trend of enlargement of main rivers (4.5% and 7.9% in periods of the 1960s-1980s and 1980s-2010s). (4) Expanding of urban land, construction of hydraulic engineering and irrigation and water conservancy activities were the main means.

Key words: stream structure, spatial and temporal change, urbanization, Yangtze River Delta