地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (5): 796-808.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201505010

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历史时期伊犁河谷文化遗址时空特征及驱动力分析

王芳1,2(), 张小雷1(), 杨兆萍1, 栾福明3, 熊黑钢4, 王昭国1,2, 时卉1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,乌鲁木齐 830011
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 丽水学院商学院,丽水 323000
    4. 北京联合大学应用文理学院,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2014-06-30 修回日期:2015-01-10 出版日期:2015-05-20 发布日期:2015-06-11
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王芳(1984-), 女, 山东菏泽人, 博士研究生, 主要从事人地关系与区域可持续发展研究。E-mail: 13579801764@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAH48F01);中国科学院外国专家特聘研究员计划(2013T2Z0004);国家自然科学基金(41171165, 41301204)

Spatio-temporal characteristics of cultural sites and an analysis of their driving forces in the Ili River Valley in historical periods

Fang WANG1,2(), Xiaolei ZHANG1(), Zhaoping YANG1, Fuming LUAN3, Heigang XIONG4, Zhaoguo WANG1,2, Hui SHI1,2   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Business School, Lishui University, Lishui 323000, Zhejiang, China
    4. College of Art and Science, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2014-06-30 Revised:2015-01-10 Online:2015-05-20 Published:2015-06-11
  • Supported by:
    National Science and Technology Pillar Program, No.2012BAH48F01;Chinese Academy of Sciences Visiting Professorship for Senior International Scientists, No.2013T2Z0004;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171165, No.41301204

摘要:

运用ArcGIS软件对伊犁河谷文化遗址时空分布进行分析,探讨了遗址时空演变特征与人文历史、自然环境的关系。结果表明:① 从夏—西周到清—近现代6个时期中,遗址数量及在总数中的比重、出现频率呈倒“V”型变化,从萌芽阶段到巅峰阶段,至衰落阶段。② 遗址的空间分布格局由前3个时期的“东高西低”转变为后3个时期的“西高东低”,人类活动空间重心发生了转移。③ 遗址主要分布在1~5级坡度上,其比重由春秋—秦时期的75%增至清—近现代时期的93.75%;而遗址集中分布高程则由春秋—秦和西汉—南北朝时期的4~8级转移到后3个时期的1~4级,且其数量表现出明显的从高海拔的山地丘陵向低海拔平原、从高坡度向低坡度转移。④ 研究区遗址演变模式与典型干旱区遗址迁移模式相反,表现为特殊的“中上游→下游”迁移的“湿润模式”。⑤ 研究区文化遗址分布、时空演变受政治、经济、生产力等人文因素和地貌、海拔、坡度、气候等自然因素的综合影响。由于其气候湿润,水资源丰富,虽然遗址分布和演变表现出一定的河谷谷地、阶地、平原、水资源等“自然因素”指向性规律,但更突出表现为生产力水平、政治稳定、经济发展、商贸交通等“人文力量”指向性规律,这一点在中后期表现得更为明显。

关键词: 伊犁河谷, 历史时期, 文化遗址, 时空分布, 驱动力

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of cultural sites in the Ili River Valley in Northwest China based on the application of ArcGIS software. It further explores the relationships between the spatio -temporal evolution of the sites, human history, and the natural environment. The results indicate that the numbers and proportions of the sites, and the frequency of their occurrence, exhibited an inverted V-shaped change trend during six historical periods. These covered the initial, peak, and declining stages of six periods extending from the Xia-Western Zhou dynasties to the Qing-Modern period. The spatial distribution pattern shifted from "high in the east and low in the west" during the first three periods to "high in the west and low in the east" during the latter three periods, illustrating a change in the spatial center of gravity of human activities. The sites were mainly distributed on slopes of grades 1-5. The proportion of sites increased from 75% during the Spring and Autumn-Qin dynasties to 93.75% during the Qing-Modern period. The concentrated distribution of site elevations shifted from grades 4-8 during the Spring and Autumn-Qin dynasties, and the Western Han-Northern and Southern dynasties to grades 1-4 during the latter three periods. The number of sites showed a shifting trend from high mountains and hills to low plains, and from high slopes to low slopes. In particular, the evolutionary pattern of sites in the study area exhibited a special "moist" pattern of migration from middle and upstream areas to downstream areas, as opposed to the migration pattern of sites located in typical arid areas. The paper also includes a discussion of factors influencing the distribution and spatio -temporal evolution of cultural sites, notably, human factors such as politics, economy, and productivity, and natural factors such as geomorphology, altitude, slope, and climate. Although the distribution and spatio -temporal evolution of cultural sites exhibited an orientation toward natural laws pertaining to factors such as river valleys, terraces, plains, and water resources, they presented a significant orientation toward laws, relating to human-driven forces including productivity levels, political stability, economic development, business and trade, and transport, which were more evident during the latter historical periods.

Key words: Ili River Valley, historical periods, cultural sites, spatio -temporal distribution, driving forces